The Science of Cannabis and Hemp Storage

With wine production, for centuries it has been known that every environmental factor—from soil quality to harvest techniques to aging processes—affects the final product. That same level of quality assurance-minded scrutiny is now being applied to cannabis and hemp. With billions of dollars at stake and an increasingly discerning market of buyers and sellers, factors that come into play after harvest are more consequential than ever before.

When comparing two samples of cannabis flower, historically the attention has gone to the genetics and cultivation processes: sativa- or indica-dominant strains, indoor or outdoor growing environments. These discussions have long dominated the industry and media, as well as the conversations consumers have with their local budtenders.

But there’s an equally important factor that often gets overlooked: storage after harvest.

The relative humidity (RH) for storing harvested-and-cured cannabis flower makes a critical difference in the quality, safety, medical efficacy and value of the product. For cultivators and retailers, investing in effective, dynamic moisture control can be transformative for product quality—and can retain substantial weight (a.k.a. profit margin), which is otherwise lost to evaporation and deterioration. Proper storage of flower retains all the value, the cannabinoid profile and the distinctive characteristics that develop via thoughtful growing and curing practices.

Moisture Matters

Moisture fluctuations can have a substantial impact on the value and even the efficacy of cannabis flower. Too much moisture and the plant material becomes a breeding ground for mold and fungus. Too little and it dries out, causing significant losses in weight and key chemical components such as cannabinoids and terpenes. The same harvest can yield flower of vastly different quality, depending on whether or not it’s kept at an appropriate post-harvest moisture level.

Storage for cured cannabis has an optimal RH range of 55-65%, according to ASTM International, a global organization that establishes industry standards for manufacturing and services.[1] Within the ASTM standards, additional research commissioned by Boveda—a humidity-control research and product development firm operating globally in food, tech and botanical sectors—has identified supplementary value gain by targeting a range of 58-62%.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), defines the optimal humidity range for cannabis storage as 55% - 65% RH.

The key variable for cannabis is RH, a measurement of water vapor compared to the saturation point of its current environment and temperature. For simplicity’s sake, this discussion will refer to optimal RH ranges for cannabis storage. Scientifically speaking, the environmental RH affects the flower’s free water level, known as water activity (Aw). Because water activity is expressed as a decimal, the values for RH percentage and water activity can be viewed similarly.  For example: 0.58 Aw = 58%RH.

When cannabis stays in the optimal RH range, it realizes its full potential for quality and profitability. There are some stark consequences—from the medical to the economical—when there are deviations above or, more commonly, below this range.

Haphazard storage methods were forgiven in the early, unregulated days of the cannabis industry, but as standards and transparency increase across every stage of production and profit margins decrease, the market will deliver a painful rebuke in the form of lost revenue to cannabis companies that package and store their flower without humidity control in mind.

Research Findings: Lost Moisture is Lost Value

There are two central issues with overly dry cannabis: significant loss of weight and compromised cannabinoid profiles.

The weight of the flower directly correlates with profitability. The heavier the yield, the higher the market value. Simple enough, right? Not quite.

Cannabis flower needs to be dried and cured after cultivation, but some cultivators, processors and packagers only worry about keeping the flower below a particular humidity “ceiling” while neglecting to ensure the flower stays above a certain “floor.” It is not uncommon for cured cannabis to be stored for upwards of two months prior to sale or consumption, and by the time it reaches the end consumer, most cannabis sold in regulated environments in the U.S. and Canada is far too dry.

Field test report stating that 90% of flower is too dry.

The results of a 2018 product analysis conducted by Boveda with third-party testing are eye-opening: Of 72 cannabis samples purchased across five state markets, 67% of samples were below the optimum RH range (55-65%). And of those flower samples that tested within the target RH range, multiple samples were teetering on the cusp of the lowest optimal RH threshold, indicating significant room for improvement across the board.

Overdrying directly affects the bottom line—much more than many cultivators realize. For example:

With 1,000 pounds of cannabis, if there’s a 5% reduction of RH below the optimal threshold, that equates to a loss of six pounds (2,721.6 grams); at $5 per gram wholesale, that works out to $13,607 in lost revenue. Regardless of current wholesale prices, this provides a sense of the scale of dollars lost, but not the limits. Boveda’s analysis found that a majority of the cannabis sold today is more than 5% below the optimal range—which comes with a corresponding loss in value. In fact, third-party testing reveals that a bulk of cannabis currently on the market is around 10% below the lowest acceptable moisture level.

Cannabis stored at 45% RH. Even within that optimal RH range where cannabis flower realizes its full potential, there are still tens of thousands of dollars to be gained from precisely maintained RH. Additionally, cannabis in the optimal humidity range maximizes all the qualities that attract and retain customers.
Cannabis stored at 50% RH. Even within that optimal RH range where cannabis flower realizes its full potential, there are still tens of thousands of dollars to be gained from precisely maintained RH. Additionally, cannabis in the optimal humidity range maximizes all the qualities that attract and retain customers.

Even within that optimal RH range where cannabis flower realizes its full potential, there are still tens of thousands of dollars to be gained from precisely maintained RH. Additionally, cannabis in the optimal humidity range maximizes all the qualities that attract and retain customers.

Cannabis stored at 62% RH. Even within that optimal RH range where cannabis flower realizes its full potential, there are still tens of thousands of dollars to be gained from precisely maintained RH. Additionally, cannabis in the optimal humidity range maximizes all the qualities that attract and retain customers.

Why Some Producers Purposefully Go Too Dry

Cannabis is taxed according to its weight, and levels of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and others are calculated as a percentage of flower weight.[2] Thus, many producers lower their tax burden and increase their reported potency by intentionally drying out their cannabis, then rehydrating it shortly before sale. The strategy might improve quarterly revenue, but it’s a long-term loser.

This method irrevocably damages the quality of the flower, encourages potentially problematic rehydrating methods, and invites excessive regulation.

The negative repercussions of such tactics are far more problematic for cannabis companies than any tax savings. Customer loyalty dries up even faster than unprotected cannabis flower with the realization the cultivator has an inferior product.

Beyond that, this ploy threatens the integrity of the entire cannabis industry. Manipulative practices like this serve as an open invitation for regulators to crack down and introduce stricter standards that would likely increase bureaucratic overhead and monitoring.

Protecting Trichomes from Damage and Degradation

Consumers, particularly medical patients, have a growing vocabulary to describe the cannabis components and characteristics they seek out, namely the various terpenes and cannabinoids that contain a majority of the plant’s medical efficacy.

Cannabinoids are a diverse class of chemical compounds that engage the human endocannabinoid system, a vast network of receptors throughout the body. The percentages of THC, CBD and the overall chemical profile of cannabis flower often serve as shorthand for its potency, as well as an indication of what types of effects and health benefits the consumer may experience.

At least 104 cannabinoids have been identified in the cannabis plant.[3] So-called “rare cannabinoids” such as cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and others have begun to receive further study as scientists examine how these compounds work on their own and in concert.

If cannabinoids describe the metaphorical horsepower of a cannabis strain, terpenes are the feel of the ride. Terpenes are also responsible for producing the aroma, taste and olfactory traits of the cannabis cultivar.

Terpenes are thought to shape the therapeutic and euphoric effects of cannabis. Some researchers have discovered that terpenes interact with cannabinoids, producing what’s known as an “entourage effect.”[4] This complex interplay of cannabis components may determine whether a strain is beneficial for people with anxiety, pain, spasticity or other neurological conditions, to name a few.[5]

Terpenes and cannabinoids are housed within the plant trichomes—the delicate, resinous outer “hairs” of the flower. Since terpenes and cannabinoids are more or less what the consumers are paying for when they purchase cannabis flower, almost all of that flower’s market value is contained in this highly exposed and intensely fragile part of the plant.

During the maturation of the flower, nutrients and moisture migrate up the trichome stalk and terpenes are formed inside the trichome head.

As any veteran cultivator knows, overly dry cannabis spells big trouble for trichomes.

When harvested cannabis gets overdried, trichomes become brittle and fragile, breaking off and settling at the bottom of the package; they will not be recovered even if the flower is rehydrated. Because terpenes can volatize into the atmosphere when trichomes are compromised, if cannabis is dried out too quickly or for too long, terpenes will evaporate, negatively affecting the plant matter’s quality and flavor. The findings on evaporative terpene loss were documented in third-party lab tests commissioned by Boveda.[6]

Oxygen causes accelerated oxidation and evaporation of terpenes, flavonoids, THC, CBD, other cannabinoids and water.

Consumer Demands Are Evolving

Terpene and cannabinoid levels printed on packaging labels attest to the quality and effects a consumer could reasonably expect to experience. But it’s an open question as to whether the qualities present in the flower when it was tested and labeled are still there when the final product is consumed.

It is increasingly important for cannabis producers to get this right, both from a customer satisfaction and a regulatory compliance standpoint.

As legislative reforms continue to widen the reach of regulated cannabis markets across the country and internationally, seasoned consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their knowledge of the chemical composition of cannabis strains, and are increasingly seeking out highly specific strains with precise terpene and cannabinoid levels in mind.

Thanks to the ubiquity of social networks and the immediacy of digital communications, the feedback loop from cultivator to consumer is more public and apparent. That trend will undoubtedly follow the rapid growth trajectory of the industry at large. Whereas in the past when any cannabis flower would do, cultivators today are feeling the quality demands of the market more acutely.

Mold: A Rarer Problem with Bigger Consequences

When storing cannabis flower, many consumers—and some cultivators and processors—seek to combat overdrying with rudimentary tools such as fruit rinds, wet paper towels, tortillas and the like. These methods of rehydration are not just imprecise, they create potential health hazards. While harvested cannabis typically does not develop Botrytis cinerea or “bud rot,” it can become host to Aspergillus, a dangerous mold that thrives in high-moisture areas.

For the cultivator, mold growth means immediate lost revenue, and may threaten the long-term viability of their brand.

Mold-ridden cannabis is valueless in the marketplace and must be destroyed, particularly since pathogens such as Aspergillus can be extremely dangerous for the health of the consumer, especially those with compromised immune systems. Aspergillus exposure can lead to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which can travel from the lungs to other parts of the body[7] and when left untreated, can be fatal.[8]

Needless to say, imprecise and rudimentary rehumidifying efforts should not be an option for any cultivator, no matter the scale.

Humidity Control: A Complicated Problem with a Simple Answer

Given the risks of too much moisture, many cannabis cultivators opt to run hard in the other direction and simply accept the degradation that comes with overdry product. Fortunately, it is possible to keep RH within a tight range with little monitoring or intervention, and at a low cost.

Only pure water vapor is allowed in and out of Boveda's membrane.

Both glycerin and salt-based humidity-control products release water vapor as needed when the surrounding environment reaches a certain level of aridity. However, only 2-way humidity control technology—featuring natural saltwater formulations housed in a vapor-phase osmosis membrane—can effectively add or reduce pure water vapor as needed to maintain a constant, predetermined RH level in the storage container. This results in a stable level of moisture weight in the cannabis flower. Glycerin can be problematic because it can allow for microbial growth.[9] Salts, however, do not have this issue and can keep moisture levels within a narrow range. The benefits for cannabis flower are large and measurable.
Magnified illustration of 2-way humidity control solution.

For terpene retention, 2-way humidity control coats the trichomes of cannabis flower with a monolayer of purified water—one to two molecules thick—that acts as a protective shield, keeping the terpenes from evaporating.

Illustration of cannabinoids, terpenes and H2O evaporating from the trichome.
Illustration of cannabinoids, terpenes and H2O evaporating from the trichome.
Magnified illustration of monolayer protecting cannabinoids and terpenes from evaporating off the trichome.
Magnified illustration of monolayer protecting cannabinoids and terpenes from evaporating off the trichome.

A third-party lab study that analyzed flower cured with 2-way humidity control solutions designed to keep RH at 62% showed that the cannabis retained 18% more terpenoids and 23% more cannabinoids than a control. As a naturally safe material, salt avoids any safety complications if the packet should become compromised (glycerin can have a laxative effect,[10] which may not be desirable for the user).

When factoring in the added profitability from increased weight, along with the value-add of enhanced quality from terpene and cannabinoid retention, the advantages of 2-way humidity control are clear.

Illustration of a trichome protected by Boveda's terpene shield and one without. Boveda's terpene shield prevents cannabinoids and water weight from evaporating.

For cultivators with tight margins, a grouping that includes most growers in this highly regulated industry, that can be the difference between operating in the red or in the black.

Concluding Thoughts: A Little Saltwater Goes a Long Way

Properly controlled humidity makes a big difference in the quality, weight, safety and profitability of cannabis cultivation and processing. Fortunately, tackling evaporative loss is easy to address with 2-way humidity control solutions designed to maintain stable optimal RH within packages or containers. Salt-based humidity control solutions with 2-way vapor-phase osmosis technology are proven to achieve substantially more desirable results than other moisture-control methods, and this could translate into substantial profit retention.

The benefits of properly storing cannabis with humidity control in mind are far-reaching for cultivators, processors and packagers. In this rapidly evolving industry, cannabis brands are building their reputations in real time, and there’s no room to fall behind.

A proven humidity control system is a needed investment for cannabis businesses of any size.

Boveda 62% in a jar with cannabis flower.

Boveda. The Original Terpene Shield™.


FASTEST WAY TO RIGHT RH FOR CANNABIS

2 POST-CURE RISKS YOU CAN CONTROL WITH PRECISE RH

WHY SALT IS REQUIRED FOR PRECISE RH IN CANNABIS STORAGE

SHOULD FLOWER HAVE A STRONG SMELL BEFORE YOU GRIND IT?

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[1] https://www.astm.org/standardization-news/?q=features/two-cannabis-standards-you-should-know-about-.html

[2] https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/how-to-assess-thc-cbd-levels-in-cannabis-strains-products

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741114/

[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/

[5] https://honestmarijuana.com/terpenes/

[6] https://www.bovedawholesale.com/media/Boveda_Terpene_Study.pdf

[7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3103256/

[8] https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/aspergillosis/statistics.html

[9] http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/water_activity.html#bb

[10] https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_glycerin/drugs-condition.htm

Why Salt is Better in Humidity Control for Cannabis Storage

Cultivators are so precise about flower’s growing environment —the soil, temperature, light, moisture, etc. Why after weeks of carefully cultivation do growers and processors leave the quality of cannabis to chance when its in storage? (This isn’t you, of course, just most of the other flower peddlers on the market.)

Ninety percent of cannabis flower sold in the market is sold underweight and is unprotected from losing their terpenes forever.

Only 10% of cannabis is protected against mold growth and over drying

When flower is in storage, it’s still important to maintain the relative humidity (RH) range recommended by ASTM INTERNATIONAL, a global organization that establishes industry standards for manufacturing and services. To ensure optimal RH, store flower in an airtight container or package with 2-way humidity control. But not all cannabis humidifiers are effective or precise.

USE 2-WAY HUMIDITY CONTROL WITH A SATURATED SALT SOLUTION, LIKE BOVEDA, IF YOU VALUE PRECISION WHEN IT COMES TO YOUR FLOWER

WHY IS SALT IMPORTANT?

For centuries, people have used saturated salt solutions to prevent fresh products from degrading. Since the Stone Age (WILMA!), people have preserved food with salt. Meat only available sporadically could be preserved, so it would be safe to consume months later. 

Salt kills off microbes by absorbing their moisture. In other words, salt dehydrates molds and microbes to death. (Cruel, but effective.)

Along with sanitation, saline (salt) solutions are also used in health care. In hospitals and care facilities, medications are often intravenously dispensed with a saline solution. It’s also used to achieve a targeted electrolyte balance if you’re dehydrated. And mothers throughout the ages have encouraged kids to gargle with salt water for a sore throat to ease pain, reduce swelling and flush out harmful bacteria.

Want to know more about the history of salt?

WHAT’S SALT HAVE TO DO WITH CANNABIS STORAGE?

Inside Boveda is salt, pure water and a food-safe thickening agent. The salt-based solution is sealed in Boveda’s patented vapor phase osmosis membrane. As needed, Boveda releases and absorbs pure water vapor into a cannabis container to shield trichomes in protective water molecules.

But it’s the excess salt in Boveda’s solution that helps create the stable desired RH for stored cannabis. As water vapor is released from or absorbed into the membrane, the water to salt ratio changes. The salt dissolves when more water is absorbed. The salt precipitates or becomes a solid again when more water is released.

Using nature’s original preserver, salt, Boveda dials-in and maintains your container’s humidity levels to 58% or 62%, much like a thermostat.

Boveda is the only product that incorporates this unique technology for cannabis storage.

Inside Boveda is salt, pure water and a food-safe thickening agent. The salt-based solution is sealed in Boveda’s patented vapor phase osmosis membrane. As needed, Boveda releases and absorbs pure water vapor into a cannabis container to shield trichomes in protective water molecules.

What about other humidifying packets?

Other humidity packets for cannabis use chemical compounds that aren’t in a saturated solution. So there’s no back and forth of water vapor like you find in Boveda to protect cannabis from moisture fluctuations.

And cannabis packets that use glycerin simply create a specific starting RH. Very quickly, the humidity “control ” of glycerin-based packets is lost after the water is absorbed or evaporated from its package.  

As soon as glycerin-based packets give up or absorb moisture, the RH level inside your cannabis container or package changes wildly.

SO WHERE DOES THE SALT GO?

Nowhere. The salt stays safely inside the Boveda leakproof membrane. So the salt in Boveda NEVER comes in contact with your flower. Only water vapor passes in and out of the membrane to safely and precisely humidify your flower. ADDING AND ABSORBING MOISTURE is what makes Boveda 2-way humidity control. And it’s how Boveda can prevent terpene and water weight loss in stored cannabis.

Boveda. The Original Terpene Shield™.

THE SCIENCE OF CANNABIS AND HEMP STORAGE

FASTEST WAY TO RIGHT RH FOR CANNABIS

2 POST-CURE RISKS YOU CAN CONTROL WITH PRECISE RH

SHOULD FLOWER HAVE A STRONG SMELL BEFORE YOU GRIND IT?

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2 post-cure risks you can control with precise RH

Being in the cannabis business, you face risks you often can’t control. Foul weather, wild fires, destructive insects, powdery mildew, regulatory changes, the list goes on and on.

Post-cure, risks continue when unprotected flower is in storage. Moisture is again the culprit here. Too much moisture is a breeding ground for mold. Too little moisture negatively impacts flower’s efficacy, experience, water weight and ultimately, its value. At this stage in flower’s lifespan, there’s an easy way to mitigate these risks with 2-way humidity control, like Boveda.

GAMBLING WITH MOISTURE & IMPRECISE RH LEVELS CAN LEAVE YOU WITH DRY, DAMAGED TRICHOMES, TERPENE LOSS & MOLDY FLOWER

Dry, crumbly unprotected cannabis and moldy cannabis. Dry verse moldy cannabis flower.

The most critical job for any humidity control product you choose: it protects flower’s quality, so it consistently delivers the effects and relief consumers expect.

Using a 2-way humidity control product, like Boveda, protects flower from damaging moisture fluctuations by:

  1. Releasing available water vapor as needed
  2. Absorbing water vapor when conditions change

How precise is that packet in with your flower?

What you want is a humidity control solution that works to constantly achieve a precise RH level for flower, so you don’t have to worry about those post-cure risks.

A SATURATED SALT-BASED SOLUTION LIKE BOVEDA IS THE ONLY PRECISE HUMIDITY CONTROL FOR CANNABIS

SALT: The salts in Boveda are saturated with pure water. Inside, there is also some excess, undissolved salt. It’s the salt that maintains a precise RH level for stored flower by providing or taking up water from its surrounding environment.

WATER: As water molecules exit or are absorbed, Boveda’s saturated salt solution continues to perform at the indicated humidity level—58% or 62% RH.

PRECISE: The key to precise RH levels in stored cannabis is Boveda’s saturated salt-based solution. In and around your flower, the RH level stays at 58% or 62% with Boveda, even as its ratio of salt to water may need to change.

BOVEDA: NO OTHER HUMIDITY CONTROL PRODUCTS incorporate saturated salt-based technology in their formulas. So you’ll only maintain a precise RH level that’s optimal for stored cannabis with Boveda.

3 more wins when you use Bovedas salt-based solution:

  1. Achieves that precise RH level 2x faster than any other humidity control products on the market.
  2. Maintains a precise RH over a long time—through curing, storage, distribution and retailing.
  3. Works automatically. Just slip in Boveda with your stored flower to maintain the optimal RH level to prevent loss of terpenes and water weight.

WATCH HOW BOVEDA WORKS FOR CANNABIS

Trichome with and without the protection of Boveda. Boveda creates a monolayer of water molecules that shields trichomes and prevents terpenes and water weight from evaporating.

Boveda creates a monolayer of water molecules that shields trichomes and prevents terpenes and water weight from evaporating.

Boveda. The Original Terpene Shield™.

WHY SALT IS REQUIRED FOR PRECISE RH IN CANNABIS STORAGE

THE SCIENCE OF CANNABIS AND HEMP STORAGE

FASTEST WAY TO RIGHT RH FOR CANNABIS

SHOULD FLOWER HAVE A STRONG SMELL BEFORE YOU GRIND IT?

SEE HOW BOVEDA WORKS

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Fastest Way to Right RH for Cannabis Storage

Think you don’t have to worry about flower drying out because you sell it as soon as soon as it’s cured or hits the shelf? A speedy sale doesn’t protect flower against moisture damage. But putting 2-way humidity control in with your cannabis storage will.

Flower is most vulnerable when its out of your hands in storage, in transit and in packaging.

FACT: Unprotected flower immediately starts to degrade even when it’s in an airtight tote, jar or bag.

When left unprotected, even for a short time, flower is exposed to moisture fluctuations that impact its value and efficacy. Too little moisture causes cannabis to dry out, resulting in significant losses in weight and key chemical components, such as cannabinoids and terpenes. With fewer terpenes, she’ll deliver a compromised experience for consumers.

To avoid evaporation damaging your flower post-cure, keep it within the range based on ASTM International standards for storing cannabis. You’ll get your flower there quicker with Boveda 2-way humidity control.

Boveda works faster. Boveda can bring cannabis to equilibrium two times as fast compared to the competition.

Boveda effectively adds or reduces pure water vapor as needed to maintain a constant, predetermined relative humidity (RH) level for dried cannabis.

Why Boveda Is Faster Than Other Humidity Packets

Natural saltwater formulations are sealed in Boveda’s patented vapor-phase osmosis membrane. This patented membrane is highly permeable, which means water vapor can pass through it rapidly.

Initially when you put Boveda in with dried flower, the movement of water vapor out of the membrane is fast. When there is a big difference between the current RH level of flower and where that flower should be, those water molecules move at max speed.

What's inside a Boveda pack? Natural saltwater formulations are sealed in Boveda's patented vapor-phase osmosis membrane. This patented membrane is highly permeable, which means water vapor can pass through it rapidly.
Water molecules leaving Boveda pack through it's patented vapor phase osmosis membrane.

The speed of the water vapor slows as Boveda creates equilibrium in the container. The water vapor stops flowing whenever the RH of the atmosphere surrounding your flower reaches the humidity design of Boveda. Boveda only releases more water vapor when flower dips below that ideal RH.

Boveda’s goal is to keep flower’s RH level equal its own— 58% or 62% RH

Boveda in a jar with cannabis flower. In just 3 days, Boveda can bring the air inside a cannabis container or package up to the right RH. Boveda’s goal is to make your flower’s RH level equal its own— 58% or 62% RH

In just 3 days, Boveda can bring the air inside a cannabis container or package up to the right RH.

Buds are dense, so it takes them more time to absorb Boveda’s pure water vapor. Within just 7 days, the flower inside the container or package will reach the ideal RH level.

Protecting trichomes and saving terps is why the right RH is a must

Trichomes with and without Boveda. Unprotected trichome without Boveda. Protected trichome with Boveda. Protecting trichomes and saving terps is why the right RH is a must.

Those water molecules released by Boveda create a powerful terpene shield. This shield protects your precious trichomes by preventing evaporation and preserving the terpenes, cannabinoids and THC.

And Boveda creates the shield whenever it’s stored and packaged with cannabis. So even when you flower is flying off the shelves, using Boveda makes a critical difference in maintaining the quality, safety, medical efficacy and value of your flower.

So if you care about the quality of your product post-cure (and we know you do), store and package flower with Boveda.

Boveda. The Original Terpene Shield™.

WHY SALT IS REQUIRED FOR PRECISE RH IN CANNABIS STORAGE

THE SCIENCE OF CANNABIS AND HEMP STORAGE

2 POST-CURE RISKS YOU CAN CONTROL WITH PRECISE RH

SHOULD FLOWER HAVE A STRONG SMELL BEFORE YOU GRIND IT?

SEE HOW BOVEDA WORKS

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For Cannabis, Moisture Matters

Excerpted from

Cannabis Industry Journal


Why Humidity Can Make or Break a Cannabis Cultivator’s Bottom Line

Vintners have known for centuries that every step in the winemaking process—from cultivation and harvest techniques to fermentation, aging and bottling—has immense impact on the quality and value of the final product.

And that same level of scrutiny is now being applied to cannabis production.

How post-harvest storage and packaging affect the quality and value of cannabis flower

Cannabis storage conditions and humidity levels are beyond the challenges of preventing mold. There’s a big effect evaporation has on quality and how this is playing out on the retail level. Here’s how moisture loss could be affecting your bottom line.

A mere 5% dip below the optimal relative humidity (RH) storage environment eliminates 6 pounds per every 1,000 pounds of cannabis flower.

Field test report stating that 90% of flower is too dry.

The weight of cannabis flower directly correlates with its profitability—the heavier the yield, the higher the market value

At $5 per gram wholesale, that works out to upwards of $13,500 in lost revenue—and that’s with just a 5% drop in RH below the target range of 55-65% established by ASTM International, an independent industry standards organization.

Boveda purchased flower at retailers in multiple state markets and commissioned a lab to test the samples. Field tests revealed: Most strains sold today are well below the optimal RH range (55-65%).

Regardless of fluctuating wholesale prices, when you do the math it’s clear that tens of thousands of dollars in revenue are simply evaporating into thin air.


SEE HOW MUCH MORE YOUR FLOWER IS WORTH WITH BOVEDA
[ CALCULATE HERE ]


Why Rehydration Permanently Damages Flower

Historically, cultivators, processors and packagers have emphasized keeping flower below a particular humidity “ceiling” for a reason: Flower that’s too moist is prone to hazardous mold and microbial growth, so it’s understandable that many operators err on the side of being overly dry.

The misconception that cannabis flower can be “rehydrated” is another cause of dryness damage. But this method irrevocably damages the quality of the flower through trichome damage.

Rehydration cannot: put terpenes back in the flower, nor can it re-attach trichomes to the flower, which is why preserving these elements is so key.

BOVEDA SHIELDS TERPENES IN MOISTURE & HELPS FLOWER RETAIN ITS WATER WEIGHT

Those delicate plant structures that house the all-important cannabinoids and terpenes become brittle and fragile when stored in an overly dry environment, and are prone to breaking off from the flower; they cannot not be recovered even if the flower is later rehydrated.

When trichomes are compromised, terpenes responsible for the aroma, taste and scent of cannabis also can evaporate.

Overly dried-out cannabis doesn’t just lose weight and efficacy—it loses shelf appeal, which is particularly risky in today’s market. Today’s consumers have an appreciation for how premium flower should look, smell and taste.

What’s happening to cannabis once it leaves the cultivation room

Cured cannabis flower can remain in storage potentially for months prior to sale or consumption. By the time it reaches the end consumer, much of the cannabis sold in regulated environments in the U.S. and Canada has suffered from dry damage.

There are various humidity controls available for cannabis cultivators: desiccants that absorb water vapor; mechanical equipment that alters RH on a larger scale; or two-way humidity-control packets designed for storage containers.

In the CPG (Consumer Packaged Goods) sector, with other moisture-sensitive products such as foods and electronics, employing humidity controls will preserve quality, and cannabis flower is no different.

Saltwater-based humidity control solutions with 2-way vapor-phase osmosis technology automatically add or remove water vapor as needed to maintain a constant, predetermined RH level and ensures a consistent level of moisture weight inside the cannabis flower. Boveda is the only 2-way humidity control technology that uses natural saltwater formulations in a vapor-phase osmosis membrane.

This saltwater solution creates a monolayer of purified water molecules that naturally coats the trichomes and shields precious terpenes from evaporating into your container. Using Boveda also results in a stable level of moisture weight in cannabis flower.


Third-party lab tests commissioned by Boveda showed cannabis stored with humidity control had terpene and cannabinoid levels that were 15% higher than cannabis stored without.


Cannabis stored within the optimal humidity range with Boveda maximizes all the qualities that attract and retain customers. Similar to wine-making, when cannabis cultivators focus on quality control they need to look beyond the harvest.

-Excerpted from Cannabis Industry Journal

Boveda. The Original Terpene Shield™.

By Sean Knutsen

Sean Knutsen is President and CEO of Boveda Inc., the global leader in two-way humidity control solutions for a wide range of industries, from premium cigars and botanicals to electronics, foods, musical instruments and more. Boveda invented and patented the world’s first two-way humidity control technology for packaging and containers, made with all-natural salts and purified water.

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SHOULD FLOWER HAVE A STRONG SMELL BEFORE YOU GRIND IT?

Short answer, no. But do you know why?

Think of an orange. Before you peel it, have you ever smelled it? You can pick up just a hint of its “orangyness” from its dimply exterior. But that mouthwatering citrus scent is strongest when you tear into the peel.

Releasing those luscious citrus terpenes tells you that that peel did its job. The peel shielded the good stuff inside the orange, keeping it juicy and fresh—and vitamin-rich—until it’s consumption time. Same with cannabis.

Shown left: Up close shot of cannabis that shows the trichomes. Shown right: view of a trichome in the molecular state that shows the monolayer shield of moisture created by Boveda.

Terpenes are the aromatic essential oils in cannabis. They reside with cannabinoids in the mushroom-shaped glands called plant trichomes—those delicate, resinous outer “hairs” of the flower. Since terpenes and cannabinoids are more or less what consumers pay for when they purchase cannabis flower, almost all of that flower’s market value is contained in this highly exposed and intensely fragile part of the plant.

Trichomes are the source of the therapeutic, medicinal and recreational compounds of this healing plant.

DO YOU SMELL FLOWER TO SEE IF IT’S FRESH?

Smelling Flower

Most consumers—and some cultivators—open a container, stick their noses in to inhale the flower’s strong aroma. Truth is, a strong smell doesn’t prove flower is fresh. Quite the contrary, a strong smell tells you that terpenes have escaped because of evaporation. When stored without humidity control in a container, flower immediately starts to degrade.

90% of flower is stored too dry, according to a 2018 product analysis conducted by Boveda with third-party testing.

Most flower is stored for upwards of two months before it’s sold or consumed. By the time it reaches the end consumer, most cannabis sold in regulated environments in the U.S. and Canada is far too dry.

4 BAD THINGS THAT HAPPEN TO FLOWER WHEN IT’S STORED WITHOUT Boveda:

  1. The smell, a critical part of the experience, is lost forever.
  2. Precious THC and THCA oxidize, shift to CBN and lose their efficacy.
  3. Trichomes become brittle and break off.
  4. Water weight evaporates, reducing flower’s dollar value. 

GROUND FLOWER SMELLS 5X STRONGER WITH BOVEDA

Ground vs Unground Smell Intensity Independent Lab Results, Terpene Smell Intensity Study, St. Croix Sensory, Inc.

Key findings:

  • The aroma of freshly ground flower stored with Boveda is 5x stronger than flower stored without Boveda
  • Dry ground sample has almost the same smell intensity as unground dry sample (terpenes evaporated without monolayer protection)
  • Monolayer of water molecules begins to form around 55% and gets even thicker at 62%

WHY STORING FLOWER IN AN AIRTIGHT CONTAINER IS JUST THE BEGINNING

Think closing up flower in a jar, CVault®, bin or bag is all that you need to do?

An airtight container doesn’t protect trichomes from losing moisture. Terpenes merely evaporate into the headspace of the container. You have to maintain consistent relative humidity (RH) in the range of 55-65% in that container to keep flower from degrading.

Chart of the Total Terpenes Measured in Container Headspace: if the RH is at 62 = 45%, if the RH is at 50 = 50%, if the RH is at 32 = 52%, if there was no RH control = 75%

Only Boveda enables any container to preserve terpenes—not slowly destroy them. Storing flower with Boveda shields trichomes in a monolayer of moisture. Boveda’s monolayer of moisture blocks the harmful effects of degradation, oxidation and evaporation in stored flower.

That’s why Boveda is known as the original terpene shield.

Boveda’s Terpene Shield™ creates a monolayer of moisture, which reduces terpene losses. 

The monolayer of moisture is a protective shield that allows flower to achieve equilibration with its surrounding air. In a cannabis container, maintaining relative humidity (RH) between 55–65% keeps flower within that range, too. This dramatically slows evaporation.  

And with sufficient water molecules in the container’s headspace, terpenes have little wiggle room. Thus, they remain safely tucked inside the trichome. 

Boveda’s Terpene Shield™ creates a monolayer of moisture, which blocks over oxidation.

Water contains only about 3% oxygen while the surrounding environment is made up of about 21% oxygen. Remember, it’s oxygen that causes terpenes to deteriorate and triggers the loss of THC. 

So minimizing flower’s direct contact with too much oxygen helps trichomes preserve its terpenes, THC and possibly other cannabinoids.  

Well-hydrated flower drops fewer trichomes.

When harvested cannabis is too dry, trichomes become brittle and fragile, breaking off and settling at the bottom bin, jar or package. These lost trichomes will never be recovered (even if the flower is rehydrated).

Keeping the atmosphere surrounding flower in the 55-65% RH range protects flower as it moves along the supply chain. A monolayer of moisture shields delicate trichomes, so they can better protect themselves against damage. So trichomes are less likely to drop off as they’re handled during curing, storage, transport and packaging.


HOW TO GET AND KEEP FLOWER IN THAT RH SWEET SPOT

Fortunately, cultivators can easily tackle moisture evaporation with 2-way humidity control solutions designed to maintain stable optimal RH in containers and packages.

But not all humidity control solutions are the same, or effective. There are a number of products available that tout the ability to maintain a given humidity level. Issues arise, however, when the moisture level surrounding stored flower fluctuates. Effective humidity control solutions need to respond to these changes by giving off, as well as absorbing moisture.

HOW BOVEDA SHIELDS TERPENES TO PRESERVE AROMA

Cultivators use Boveda to precisely stabilize the RH level in cannabis containers. Only the saturated salt solution developed and patented by Boveda is proven to protect cannabis through these changes in moisture.

Boveda is the only 2-way humidity control technology that uses natural saltwater formulations in a vapor-phase osmosis membrane. This membrane adds or reduces pure water vapor as needed to maintain a constant, predetermined RH level in the storage container.

This saltwater solution creates a monolayer of purified water molecules that naturally coats the trichomes and shields precious terpenes from evaporating into your container. Using Boveda also results in a stable level of moisture weight in cannabis flower.

Unlike any other product, Boveda also takes flower to the precise level needed to protect flower from mold growth.

WHY THE PROOF IS IN THE GRIND

So if the aroma of your bud is strong hours or days before you consume it, there are issues. It means the trichomes have started deteriorating and terpenes have evaporated, so they won’t be available later during consumption. However, when you grind a bud whose trichomes have been perfectly preserved in a monolayer of moisture by Boveda, you’ll release robust aroma. Terps saved. Life is good.

Boveda. The Original Terpene Shield™.

2 POST-CURE RISKS YOU CAN CONTROL WITH PRECISE RH

FASTEST WAY TO RIGHT RH FOR CANNABIS STORAGE

EVAPORATION IS DEPRIVING CONSUMERS AND COSTING LPS MILLIONS

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Home Grow 14: How To Save the Terps While You Cure

Home Grow chronicles Dianna’s personal journey as a medical cannabis patient who registered and was approved by the Canadian government to grow cannabis in her home. Dianna’s experience is one grower’s point of view. Her ideas are neither the best nor the only proven methods for growing medicinal grade cannabis.


After investing time and money growing her own medicine, cannabis cultivator/Boveda blogger Dianna Donnelly wants to protect her hard work. Learn why shielding terpenes and preserving water content are key to a proper cure.

At this point in my horticultural schooling, I’ve learned how to cure. Couldn’t be easier—put dried flower in an airtight container and slip in a Boveda to regulate moisture. Done.

At this point in my horticultural schooling, I’ve learned how to cure. Couldn’t be easier—put dried flower in an airtight container and slip in a Boveda to regulate moisture. Done.

But I’ve only recently started to understand why growers cure cannabis. Curing cannabis preserves, ages and stabilizes flower’s organic compounds. It’s a bit like why cheesemakers age cheddar. Enzymatic processes and time deepen the flavor, aroma and taste of cheese. Similarly, curing refines the flavor, aroma, taste, and chemical compounds in cannabis.

WHY GROWERS DON’T JUST JUMP FROM HARVEST TO CURE

Post-harvest, the biomass of flower is way too moist to seal her up in an airtight container. (Mold, anyone?) Proper drying sets up flower for proper curing. 

HOME GROWERS MAKE BETTER MEDICINE WHEN THEY PROPERLY CURE CANNABIS

Ever heard that you have to cough to get off? Wrong. Wrong. Wrong. Smoking uncured cannabis is hard on the throat. It’s an excess of chlorophyll in dried flower that causes throat irritation and cough. Even the taste of uncured plant material is off-putting. Smoking uncured cannabis is reminiscent of smoking a piece of straw as a kid. Know better; do better right?

Here’s why growers cure cannabis:

  1. To stop evaporation:
    Some moisture is good for cannabis, but too much moisture sets the stage for mold growth. Yet left unmanaged, evaporation will deplete all organic matter of moisture. And evaporation is flower’s enemy. If the RH inside your herbal medicine containers falls below 55% RH, you’re putting the medicine you worked so hard to grow at risk. Taste and efficacy of flower relies on maintaining the perfect moisture level to protect her resinous compounds.
  2. To break down chlorophyll:
    Chlorophyll is what makes all plants green and it’s why they can make energy from light. Again, cannabis that retains too much chlorophyll is harsh to smoke (and can cause digestive upset if eaten). Part of curing is giving plant-born bacteria and enzymes (catalysts for natural chemical reactions) time to consume and in turn, break down that chlorophyll.
  3. To allow further cannabis conversion and biosynthesis:
    Stopping evaporation allows cannabis to fully develop numerous compounds—those terpenes and cannabinoids you all know and love. As it turns out, the mother of many cannabinoids is cannabigerolic acid or CBGA.

    Did you know many cannabinoids actually begin as other compounds—check out this chart to see which ones. For example, keeping RH in a sweet spot between 58 and 62% RH allows CBGA or Cannabigerolic Acid to evolve into 3 three of cannabis’s most therapeutic compounds—THCA, CBDA, and CBCA.

HOW A HOME GROWER CAN TELL WHEN IT’S TIME TO CURE

My first batch of flower dried in just five days, which was way too fast.

Instead of taking chances with the flower I spent so much time and effort cultivating, I tested a sample of my home grow in a closed container to verify the relative humidity (RH) before I cured my flower. What’s another day to be sure?

After 24 hours, a digital hygrometer confirmed that my flower was at 46% RH! Way below 55% RH, the minimum level for safely storing flower. Thankfully, my flower was only in that too-dry environment for about 10 hours.

If I would have cured flower that dry without a terpene shield like Boveda, I would have permanently destroyed terpenes and trichomes.

I quickly transferred my green goddesses into airtight, light-proof CVault® containers stocked with Boveda 62 RH.

Jars full of cannabis protected with Boveda. If I would have cured flower that dry without a terpene shield like Boveda, I would have permanently destroyed terpenes and trichomes.

DON’T GAMBLE WITH RH FOR CANNABIS

Problem with curing while too dry? 
Some industry growers dry cannabis to excess to guard against microorganism-growth.   

Resinous compounds in cannabis evaporate in flower that’s cured and stored below 55% RH. Once compounds evaporate, they are gone forever and can never be rehydrated. The structural integrity of the trichome itself becomes fragile, breaking off prematurely. Plant terpenes are even more sensitive to the effects of over-drying. 

An independent study found curing and storing with Boveda saves your terp potency by 15%!

Problem with curing while too wet? 
Moisture left deep in the flower will hinder proper chemical conversion during cannabinoid biosynthesis. In addition, RH levels above 65% put flowers into the danger-zone for microorganism growth.  

With Boveda, the environment inside a cannabis container cannot climb above 62% relative humidity level (RH), which is well below the level that mold can grow.

TO BURP OR NOT TO BURP CURING CANNABIS

During curing, some growers burp their cannabis by opening jars every day to allow for air exchange. Burping also releases C02, a common bi-product of the curing process. Before the advent of humidity control packets, growers had to open jars to release excess moisture.  

Curing with Boveda eliminates the need to burp cannabis to regulate moisture. (Boveda automatically absorbs excess moisture, after all.) But old habits die hard, so many growers who use Boveda still open their jars daily. Full disclosure, I burped my cure every day for two weeks.

Every week, I also ground a small amount of my flower. It was after the grind that I could fully appreciate the sweet aroma I craved. After about a month, I noticed the pungency of my medicine changed.

The full terpene effect evolved, deepened and matured while it was shielded in moisture by Boveda.  

Cannabis stored in Cvaults protected with Boveda. SAVE YOUR TERPS: CURE FLOWER FROM 30-60 DAYS IN AN AIRTIGHT CONTAINER WITH BOVEDA, THE ORIGINAL TERPENE SHIELD.

SAVE YOUR TERPS: CURE FLOWER FROM 30-60 DAYS IN AN AIRTIGHT CONTAINER WITH BOVEDA, THE ORIGINAL TERPENE SHIELD.

AN AIRTIGHT CONTAINER IS NOT ENOUGH TO SAVE YOUR TERPS

Some home growers mistakenly believe that curing cannabis in an airtight container is sufficient. Considering the humidity in homes can hover between 40% and 60%, the RH inside a jar could be as low as 40%, even though your airtight container may have stopped evaporation! As discussed earlier, anything below 55% RH drastically lowers the quality, efficacy and pungency of your flower. 

Even some professional growers mistakenly leave flower unprotected in airtight containers during the cure. They believe controlling humidity level inside the drying and curing rooms is enough to protect their flower. Not so.

Even some professional growers mistakenly leave flower unprotected in airtight containers during the cure. They believe controlling humidity level inside the drying and curing rooms is enough to protect their flower. Not so.

Left unprotected against moisture loss, flower degrades immediately in bins and jars—even if these containers are tightly closed. Therapeutic terpenes micro-evaporate into a cannabis container’s head space (the air inside). Boveda’s saltwater solution creates a monolayer shield that naturally coats trichomes, preventing the degradation of THC and other cannabinoids.

Now that I’m a home grower, I’ve learned how important it is to retain the proper water content in dried flower to save terps. Thinking back to when I bought my medicine, I wonder if my flower’s potency was ever compromised if the LPs didn’t cure and store flower with a terpene shield like Boveda.

A field study of flower sold by dispensaries in the western U.S., found 90% of flower available to consumers was too dry. Makes you wonder if Canadian flower is often sold too dry, as well.


Dianna Donnelly home grower who uses Boveda, the original terpene shield, to cure and store her dried flower.
Dianna Donnelly

Dianna Donnelly is a cannabis educator, blogger, and freelance writer living in Kingston, Ontario. She counsels new patients on the safe and effective use of medicinal cannabis and believes that with enough time, cannabis, and coconut oil she can heal the world.

Dianna Donnelly’s posts are being provided for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by Boveda or any of the products, services or opinions of Dianna Donnelly. Boveda bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of this post or links to the posts. Contact Dianna Donnelly for answers to questions regarding her content.

HOME GROW: PART 1: LEGAL TO DO IT

HOME GROW: PART 13: WET TRIMMER TURNS DRY TRIMMER, HERE’S WHY

SEE HOW BOVEDA WORKS FOR CANNABIS

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QUALITY IS STILL #1 EVEN WHEN YOU’RE GROWING FOR CONCENTRATES

Post-cure care of cannabis affects not only the actual flower but also the quality of products derived from her, such as concentrates. The most sought-after compounds in flower are her cannabinoids and terpenes.

An ounce of cannabis concentrate contains a greater proportion of compounds than smokable flower.

-Weedmaps

PREVENTING POST-CURE FLOWER FROM DEGRADING PROTECTS CANNABIS VALUE

High-quality flower should produce high-quality concentrates. (The good-in, good-out theory.) But during storage, transportation and packaging—her most vulnerable stages—some cultivators leave that high-quality flower exposed to evaporation.

Left unprotected against moisture loss, flower degrades immediately in bins and jars—even if these containers are tightly closed. Terpenes evaporate. And trichomes get brittle and break off and along with them goes cannabinoids. Then that high-quality flower that cultivators labored over is not as valuable as it could have been.

SHIELDING TERPENES & COATING TRICHOMES PREVENTS QUALITY FROM EVAPORATING

Cultivators safeguard those terpenes and cannabinoids by storing flower with Boveda. Boveda prevents evaporation of terpenes by creating a monolayer of purified water molecules that naturally coats trichomes. And maintaining a precise moisture level with Boveda helps flower hold on to her water content, her water weight and her potency.  

Boveda prevents evaporation of terpenes by creating a monolayer of purified water molecules that naturally coats trichomes. And maintaining a precise moisture level with Boveda helps flower hold on to her water content, her water weight and her potency.

GROWING IN POPULARITY: CANNABIS CONCENTRATES

Adults are experimenting with varied ways of getting their cannabinoids. (Not every grandma is comfortable lighting one up, after all.)  As legalization continues to take hold, more adults are consuming more cannabis-derived products. As of December 2019, Canadian consumers will finally be able to legally purchase edibles and concentrates. And demand for concentrates and oils has been steadily growing in legal adult-use states.

By 2022, consumption of concentrates and edibles in U.S. will eclipse the use of flower, 50% compared to 36%.

– Arcview & BDS Analytics Cannabis Intelligence Briefing

And quality counts—whether flower is smoked or divined for her compounds. Cultivators looking to increase the marketability of their flower cannot gamble on losing terps or potency. Meticulous care of cannabis and hemp must continue post cure to earn the most from that top-shelf flower. Save the terps with Boveda. 


WHAT’S TRENDING BEYOND FLOWER AT CANNABIS TRADE SHOWS

It’s a whole new world out there, and consumers are choose their own adventure. Long gone are the days where the only choices they had was bong or bowl. The refined cannaseurs now opt for high-end solvent-less concentrates or non-alcoholic, THC-infused rosé spritzers. Flower is still popular for purists, but the potency, flavor, and terpene profiles have definitely improved.

Cultivators can’t be everywhere, so here are some new premium cannabis products popping up at cannabis trade shows.

SOMATIK COLD PRESS COFFEE

For many, cannabis and coffee go together just like coffee and Sunday morning. Regulators have mostly shied away from co-mingling THC with caffeine until now. Somatik launched an infused cold brew coffee as well as THC and CBD chocolate-covered espresso beans, goji berries and golden berries. This California company was founded with wellness at the forefront (“somatik” means mind-body balance).

For many, cannabis and coffee go together just like coffee and Sunday morning. Regulators have mostly shied away from co-mingling THC with caffeine until now. Somatik launched an infused cold brew coffee as well as THC and CBD chocolate-covered espresso beans, goji berries and golden berries. This California company was founded with wellness at the forefront (“somatik” means mind-body balance).

To make its signature product, Somatik uses only top-shelf sun-grown flower. Then removes certain terpenes that don’t play well with coffee beans through a nano-emulsification process. Somatik is already dominating the category in its native Golden State. Next up? The food and beverage brand hopes to expand into other adult-use states and Canada.  

PAPA’S SELECT LIVING EXTRACTS

Papa & Barkley, one of the best-selling cannabis topicals in the U.S., has released Papa’s Select, a line of artisan solventless extracts. Living Extracts, which are created in limited batches, are highly desired because they showcase the essence of the plant and distinct, robust terpene profiles.

The brand makes ice water hash by freezing high quality cured cannabis and then separating the trichomes from the plant using dry ice baths and special plastic bags that sift the crystals. Then live rosin is created by applying extreme heat and pressure to the ice water hash to “squish” out the cannabinoids. The potency of live rosin is higher than traditional rosin.

Despite commanding a hefty price tag compared to other concentrates, Papa’s Select regularly sells out at dispensaries across California.

POTENCY NO. 710 SKIN CARE

Beauty is one of the fast-growing segments of the legal cannabis industry, especially the use of CBD in beauty products. Potency No. 710 hemp-based serums, facial washes, masques and SPF sunscreens already have a cult-like following. The brand sources only high-quality, low-THC compounds for its line.

Beauty is one of the fast-growing segments of the legal cannabis industry, especially the use of CBD in beauty products. Potency No. 710 hemp-based serums, facial washes, masques and SPF sunscreens already have a cult-like following. The brand sources only high-quality, low-THC compounds for its line.

Potency No. 710 was founded by Mandy Lile, a Kentucky native with an esthetician background who moved to Los Angeles in search of greener pastures. The brand name is a clever play on a popular slang term for cannabis concentrates. 710 is code for “oil.” (When you read 710 upside down, it resembles the word OIL.)

The company invites customers to join its 710 Society, yet limits membership to just 710. Cannabis skin care devotees in the Society enjoy member savings, VIP product releases, special event invites and free shipping on all online orders.

THE APOTHECARRY CASE

The Apothecarry Indo-Lifestyle brand creates luxury cannabis storage systems and accessories. The company was founded by a 30-something mother and former television executive who wanted to elevate the look and function of flower storage.

Craft cultivation is indeed an art form. Perfectly trimmed and sculpted nugs are beautiful enough to showcase on a mantle—not hidden away in a jar or drawer.

The Apothecarry Indo-Lifestyle brand creates luxury cannabis storage systems and accessories. The company was founded by a 30-something mother and former television executive who wanted to elevate the look and function of flower storage.

The brand’s flagship product, the Apothecarry Case is a showpiece crafted from hardwood. Consumers can customize the case’s features based on how and what they consume—flower, waxes, oils, etc. The removable rolling tray even features a handy cutout, which is like a coaster for a jar. The case’s lock system safeguards against kids or pets getting into your medicine.

And, of course, the airtight Apothecarry is stocked with Boveda to shield terpenes and keep trichomes nice and sticky to preserve their potency. 

EVAPORATION IS DEPRIVING CONSUMERS AND COSTING LPS MILLIONS

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Home Grow 13: Wet Trimmer Turns Dry Trimmer, Here’s Why

Home Grow chronicles Dianna’s personal journey as a medical cannabis patient who registered and was approved by the Canadian government to grow cannabis in her home. Dianna’s experience is one grower’s point of view. Her ideas are neither the best nor the only proven methods for growing medicinal grade cannabis.


Its harvest time for indoor cannabis cultivator/Boveda blogger Dianna Donnelly! Learn why after wet-trimming her first crop, shell dry trim her flower next time around. What’s right for you?

It’s harvest time for my home grown beauties! Time to pull down my first crop of medicine. I decided to wet trim my first cannabis harvest. When you wet trim cannabis, you remove and trim the sugar leaves from flower immediately after you cut her from the mother plant. 

Wet trimming can be easier for new growers like me since it’s pretty easy to work your way around the plant snipping off full stems of leaves. The buds and leaves hold a lot of moisture, which is why it’s called wet trimming. Because I’m a hands-on, over-protective mother of my green, I imagined coddling those sticky buds like the newborns that they were.  So I wet trimmed my first harvest—all three green goddesses in one pain-staking, back-aching, sneeze-filled afternoon. And it was hard, messy labor.

—as fresh as it gets. “Edward Scissorhandsing” buds this fresh let’s you vary your trim— from loose to very, very tight. You can sculpt the bud to what you want. Depending on the cultivar or strain, a specific trim can make a small cola look big and meaty.  Personally, I did not enjoy wet trimming my home grow.

With itchy arms and wet fingers, I stopped halfway through the wet trim and whined, “Are we there yet?!” 

What surprised me immediately was the goo that splashed onto my hands and fingers.  This is a kind of plant-mucilage. No doubt the very essence that flows from root to stoma during transpiration.  But holy-mother-of-cannabis, it was cold, slimy, and after a while, itch-inducing, too. 

Wear long sleeves and latex gloves when you wet trim cannabis to protect your hands from your plant's oozing fluids.

At times, if I cut too deeply into the bud, it felt like I was chopping some exotic form of vegetation for a salad. The cannabis plant would be well over 90% water at this point—as fresh as it gets. “Edward Scissorhandsing” buds this fresh let’s you vary your trim— from loose to very, very tight. You can sculpt the bud to what you want. Depending on the cultivar or strain, a specific trim can make a small cola look big and meaty.  Personally, I did not enjoy wet trimming my home grow.

balls known as trichomes. Trichomes are where THC, terpenes and other cannabinoids form. While growing and freshly cut, the trichome is delicate as is the thin “skin” that protects its contents.  Cannabis starts to degrade immediately after harvest. Wet-trimmed flower dries quickly—in two to five days—because you’re fully exposing those naked buds to oxygen and the natural process of evaporation.  So it’s important to keep an eye on the bud’s moisture content or you'll damage your delicate trichomes.

As we all know, the magic happens inside those botanical crystal balls known as trichomes. Trichomes are where THC, terpenes and other cannabinoids form. While growing and freshly cut, the trichome is delicate as is the thin “skin” that protects its contents.  Cannabis starts to degrade immediately after harvest. Wet-trimmed flower dries quickly—in two to five days—because you’re fully exposing those naked buds to oxygen and the natural process of evaporation. So it’s important to keep an eye on the bud’s moisture content or you’ll damage your delicate trichomes.

After trimming, I hung up my buds in my closet to dry.  I kept a fan running to circulate the air. Another way to dry wet trim is to lay those flowers in an individual layer on a mesh screen or flat, breathable drying rack. If you’re handy, you can build a frame to stack your racks vertically.

Another way to dry wet trim is to lay those flowers in an individual layer on a mesh screen or flat, breathable drying rack. If you’re handy, you can build a frame to stack your racks vertically.

HOW THE PROFESSIONALS TRIM THEIR HARVEST

Today, most North American producers trim cannabis using machines. Automating the trim drastically lowers labor costs because it’s quicker. Trimming machines suck in branches and spit buds out the other side. To be honest, watching a plant pass through a machine trimmer rips my guts out.  But I’m a home grower with just a few, not rows and rows, of plants to harvest

Automated trimming makes sense when you have to buck a lot of cannabis in a short amount of time. The Twister B4 replaces the work that crews of 10 to 15 used to do by hand. And one unit can process more than 65 kg (≈ 150+ lbs) of fully hydrated cannabis per hour.

There are smaller bucking and trimming machines designed for home growers. The small-capacity Twister T6 dry bucks almost 2 kilograms (≈ 4 lbs) per hour or wet bucks 9 kilograms (≈ 20 lbs) per hour. At just shy of $3,000 USD, the tabletop model is still way too rich for my blood.

WHY I SWITCHED FROM WET TO DRY TRIMMING MY HOME GROW

I dry trimmed my second harvest and have never looked back because it:

  • Eliminated itch-inducing fluids from oozing all over my hands and arms
  • Retained leaves that create a “natural humidor-like effect” for flower, slowing evaporation by protecting the flower and its cannabinoids
  • Used gravity to slowly draw remaining moisture down into the flower

5 STEPS TO HANG DRYING CANNABIS

  1. Ten days before harvest, trim off the larger fan leaves. Defoliation of extraneous leaves is a technique I’ve practiced all along. And defoliating the plants right before I pulled them down saved trim time on the back end. The leaves’ time, after all, has passed and they are no longer needed.
  2. Choose to:
    Harvest cut 30-45 cm (12 to 18 inches) long stalks from the plant or
    Cut down the whole plant, snipping as close to the soil as possible
  3. Cut fast when you cut into the plant, so transpiration doesn’t pull fluids from the roots into the buds again.
  4. Immediately hang the plant or stalk upside down temporarily from something like a clothes rack.
  5. Move harvested plants or stalks to their drying area, then hang them upside down on a clothes lines or fishing line for up to 10 days. (Leave some space between plants, so air can circulate around them while they dry. )
Now once my stalks were drying in the closet, where their mother plants started their lives with me, the branches dried within five days, which was way too fast.

My stalks dried in the closet where their mother plants started their lives with me. These cannabis branches dried too rapidly in just five days. A slow, careful dry is crucial to attain a full-bodied, fully effective bud of medicine. 

The fix?

Run a cool mist humidifier in the closet to raise the humidity level and slow the drying process. Raising the humidity level lengthens the time for my medicine to mature its complex compounds in a process “cannabinoid biosynthesis.” 

Cannabinoid biosynthesis is how cannabinoids are made.  In the veg stage, many of the therapeutic compounds in cannabis do not yet exist. Slow drying coaxes the water out of the flowers in a controlled method, which leaves the active compounds intact. Once the water content is lowered, further cannabinoid conversion occurs.  Rapid water evaporation, however, robs your medicine of many of the water-bound terpenoids that flavor your flower.

HOW TO TELL IF THAT HANGING CANNABIS IS SUFFICIENTLY DRY

Anecdotally, I’ve read that a cannabis stalk will snap when it’s dry and ready to cure.  For me that is just too vague. Admittedly, I over-dried my harvest because I fear the microorganism. 

Microorganism growth of mold, mildew and other fungus begins at 65% relative humidity (RH). You can imagine the dangers of bottling overly humidified buds for cannabis patients like me.

Before risking your whole harvest to mold, you need to test the relative humidity (RH) of your dried flower.  You can use a regular digital hygrometer or upgrade to a Boveda Butler.  The Boveda Butler sends readings right a smartphone. Plus comes with a one-step calibration kit to make sure you get an accurate reading of your precious flower.

Before risking your whole harvest to mold, you need to test the relative humidity (RH) of your dried flower. You can use a regular digital hygrometer or upgrade to a Boveda Butler. The Boveda Butler sends readings right a smartphone. Plus comes with a one-step calibration kit to make sure you get an accurate reading of your precious flower. 

HOW TO KNOW IF CANNABIS IS READY TO CURE

  1. While they are drying, snip a few of the largest buds.
  2. Put those buds and the calibrated Boveda Butler (or a hygrometer) into an airtight container, like a jar or CVault®.
  3. After 24 hours, the Boveda Butler will send a relative humidity (RH) reading directly to your smartphone of the ambient air inside that container. COOL!
  4. If your reading is greater than 55% RH, your flower needs more time to dry.
  5. Dry for a few more days and then repeat the test until your dried cannabis reaches 55% RH.
Trim off remaining leaf matter while the plants are still hanging, so you can see where the sugar leaf stems meet the flower. This
 makes it easy to remove those leaves without disrupting many of the now hardened trichomes. The dried trichome’s now hardened state ensures the bulbous head remains intact but is precariously brittle—handle with care and always trim with a clean tray to catch falling trichs!

Trim off remaining leaf matter while the plants are still hanging, so you can see where the sugar leaf stems meet the flower. This makes it easy to remove those leaves without disrupting many of the now hardened trichomes. The dried trichome’s now hardened state ensures the bulbous head remains intact but is precariously brittle—handle with care and always trim with a clean tray to catch falling trichs!

ON TO THE CURE

At this part in my home grow journey, I’m as proud as a farmer under a harvest moon. Just as any traditional farmer must process and preserve harvested vegetables and fruits to extend their shelf life, so does a cannabis grower. Curing is how growers preserve and age cannabis. But that’s a topic for next month.


Dianna Donnelly

Dianna Donnelly is a cannabis educator, blogger, and freelance writer living in Kingston, Ontario. She counsels new patients on the safe and effective use of medicinal cannabis and believes that with enough time, cannabis, and coconut oil she can heal the world.

Dianna Donnelly’s posts are being provided for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by Boveda or any of the products, services or opinions of Dianna Donnelly. Boveda bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of this post or links to the posts. Contact Dianna Donnelly for answers to questions regarding her content.

HOME GROW 14: HOW TO SAVE THE TERPS WHILE YOU CURE

HOME GROW: PART 12: 3 REASONS TO FLUSH CANNABIS PRE-HARVEST

HOME GROW: PART 1: LEGAL TO DO IT

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Understanding Cannabis Pharmacies (Feat. Hybrid Pharm) | Ep. 16

CULTIVATE WITH DREW EMMER & SCOTT SWAIL

For you and your journey in the cannabis industry.


When the base ingredients for medicine are flower’s healing cannabinoids, that flower needs to stay potent and protected. In this interview with Hybrid Pharm, hear:

  • Why get a medical card when adult-use cannabis is legal
  • What cultivators can do to protect the quality and preserve potency they grow into cannabis
  • What healthcare providers need to know about medicinal cannabis

We must keep patients at the forefront as adult-use becomes such a big business.

Subscribe to the Cultivate podcast on the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel or on iTunes.

Cannabis, it’s not so much about getting high, it’s about getting healthy

Cultivators can imagine that the flower they carefully grow, dry, cure and market has a higher purpose. Calming someone’s anxieties. Reducing a child’s seizures. Stopping the pain from chemo, multiple sclerosis or concussions.

That’s why cultivating cannabis comes with a such great responsibility. Those who revere the plant, grow cannabis like it’s medicine for mothers, children and themselves. And care for that cannabis by protecting its medicinal qualities and keeping it free from mold.

Licensed producers who cultivate cannabis safely and responsibly are the ones healthcare providers do business with. Providers like Rahim Dhalla and Angelo Muscari. Dhalla is a board certified pharmacist and CEO of Hybrid Pharm. It’s Ottawa, Ontario’s first specialty compounding pharmacy, which specializes in cannabis-based products and solutions. Certified cannabis consultant Muscari is the clinic’s manager.

Providers like Rahim Dhalla and Angelo Muscari. Dhalla is a board certified pharmacist and CEO of Hybrid Pharm. It's Ottawa, Ontario's first specialty compounding pharmacy, which specializes in cannabis-based products and solutions. Certified cannabis consultant Muscari is the clinic's manager.

Why get a medical card for cannabis if adult-use cannabis is legal?

In Canada, it’s legal for adults to consume cannabis. So why differentiate between medicinal and recreational use? Post legalization, there’s an uptick interest in cannabis. But often people are intimated to use cannabis as a medication. Or they’re concerned that cannabis will interact with other medications they are taking.

“Recreational has brought people out of the cannabis closet,” Muscari said. “But a lot of these people are still kind of left to their own volition.” Many patients who are considering cannabis for health and wellness have a lot of questions.

The cannabis-curious wonder, “ ‘How do I take this medicine, when do I take this medicine, should I even be taking this medicine?’ Just because it helped your friends, it may not be for you,” Muscari said.

“We want to make sure they [patients] are using medical cannabis in the most safe and effective way possible,” Dhalla said.

In Canada, patients can register with the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (ACMPR) system. This allows patients to legally access cannabis for medical purposes under the guidance of healthcare professionals. And cannabis patients with medical cards often qualify for compassionate pricing from providers.

This allow patients to legally access to cannabis for medical purposes under the guidance of healthcare professionals.  And cannabis patients with medical cards often qualify for compassionate pricing from providers.

Why get medicinal cannabis from a licensed pharmacy?

Hybrid Pharms fills prescriptions as well as educates and supports patients with:

  • Consultations with a board-certified pharmacist
  • Drug interaction checks
  • Recommendations on specific strains best suited to specific medical conditions
  • Tincture and/or dosage schedules
  • Regular follow-up appointments

Hybrid Pharm is also a compounding pharmacy, which can specifically tailor medicines to meet a patient’s needs. For example, the healthcare team can customize medicinal cannabis suppositories for endometriosis sufferers, creams for aching athletes, CBD capsules for the concussed or alternate dosages for children or the bedridden.

Dhalla helps patients improve their overall quality of life by combining traditional and non-traditional medicines. And he can recommend alternatives to over-prescribed medications, like painkillers. “There’s a zero mortality risk rate with cannabis, so why give an opioid or benzodiazepine that we know has actual data to support it does cause death when we could replace it with something that is actually safer.”

Why the cannabis industry should keep patients at the forefront

In legal markets, adult use is a big business. But that doesn’t mean the medicinal market is any less important. “The patient is competing with commerce to be relevant,” Drew Emmer said. “There’s a lot of people who get left in the dust when an industry starts to take off.”

Drew suggested that companies in the cannabis space could set aside funds for patients who cannot afford cannabis for conditions such as end-of-life care.

And cultivators can also make sure that high quality cannabis retains its medicinal benefits by properly humidifying flower. When flower is overly dry, the very essence of what makes cannabis effective literally evaporates into thin air and with it goes a patient’s relief.

Cultivators find flower stays at an optimal moisture level longer when they use Boveda in containers and packaging—six months or longer. Extending shelf-life with precise humidity control like Boveda preserves the healing effects of cannabis for patients. And preserves the integrity of a cultivator’s hard work.

Growers protect the quality of their flower and guard against mold with Boveda. Boveda’s unique formula creates a moisture shield of pure water vapor around trichomes to protect cannabinoids. But stops moisture from reaching a level where mold can grow inside jars and bags.

Cultivators find flower stays at an optimal moisture level for a long time when they use Boveda in containers and packaging—six months or more. Extending shelf-life with precise humidity control like Boveda preserves the healing effects of cannabis for patients. And preserves the integrity of a cultivator’s hard work.

WATCH EP. 14 | EVAPORATION DEPRIVES CONSUMERS & COSTS LPS MILLIONS

SUBSCRIBE TO CULTIVATE ON YOUTUBE

SUBSCRIBE TO CULTIVATE ON ITUNES

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CRYPTO FOR CANNABIS CASH + PARTNERING WITH PRO ATHLETES

LEAN IN, LISTEN IN & LEARN

  1. Validating CBD’s effectiveness by partnering with elite athletes to test your products
  2. Producing enough of the right strains for cannabis testing
  3. Finding safe, secure solutions for your cash-based cannabis company

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

 

MAINTAINING CANNABIS QUALITY A MUST TO TEST CANNABIS HEALTH BENEFITS

Keeping cannabis well-hydrated isn’t just an issue for cannabis producers. Researchers need to test and research cannabis to prove the potency and efficacy of this healing plant.

Hard to gauge the medicinal effectiveness of cannabis when scientists are running experiments on sub-par, overdry flower.

Testing cannabis’s efficacy has been problematic since the federal prohibition of cannabis has curbed cannabis research and affected protocols for lab testing, including:

  • Using only one source—the University of Mississippi—to supply all the for cannabis samples for scientific and medical studies
  • Testing mostly older low-THC strains, which are a third to a half less than the average potency that’s purchased on the open market today
  • Not storing cannabis samples at a stable humidity level to protect flower’s chemical makeup

Now the U.S. government has approved an increase in amount of cannabis that can be produced for clinical research. And labs can adopt international standards for storing cannabis test samples.

COUPLING WITH PRO ATHLETES TO VALIDATE CBD

Instead of waiting for the government to prove that cannabidiol (CBD) works to relieve pain, one large scale cannabis company has organized its own studies.

Canada’s Aurora Cannabis is conducting clinical trials on the use of hemp-derived CBD topical treatments for Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) athletes.

These elite athletes are the ultimate subjects to test the benefits of CBD for aches and pains. UFC is a mixed-martial arts competition that combines striking, grappling and fighting in a ring. OUCH!

BANKING YOUR CANNABIS CASH

Armored trucks. Body guards. Security protocols. Even in the legal markets in the U.S., producing cannabis has been a cash-only business. Now cannabis companies have an alternative to handling and transporting large amounts of money generated from their operations.

Because cannabis is still illegal on the federal level, publicly traded banks are hesitant to provide financial services to the legitimate cannabis businesses. So cultivators have turned to credit unions in state-legal markets for banking services. Credit unions have different regulations than traditional banks, whose deposits are regulated and insured by the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation).

Now the Greek billionaire Alkiviades David is banking on the Swiss to create the first bank and cryptocurrency entirely for the legal cannabis industry. David launched The Swissx Bank of Cannabis to offer a secure financial alternative for cannabis companies.


BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: VERTICALLY INTEGRATING A CANNABIS COMPANY DEPENDS ON WHAT STATE YOU’RE IN

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1238

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

 

Vertically integrating a cannabis company depends on what state you’re in

Some courts have ruled against cannabis companies vertically integrating across retail, cultivation, manufacturing and distribution and retail operations.

LEAN IN, LISTEN IN & LEARN:

  1. Does vertical integration streamline cannabis operations?
  2. Will universal cannabis standards, processes and dosages speed up legalization?
  3. Will hemp pre-rolls affect tobacco cigarette sales in Michigan like they did in Switzerland?

What can the Feds leverage (think investment in infrastructure) to establish uniform state cannabis standards?

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

You’ve listened, now dive deeper into cannabis news:

VERTICALLY INTEGRATED? BRING IN AN EXPERT FOR PRECISE HUMIDITY CONTROL

Opponents of vertically integrating cannabis operations believe licensees might lack the technical knowledge to produce safe product and preserve that cannabis throughout the supply chain. In the burgeoning cannabis industry, smart companies turn to complementary cannabis businesses to provide that expertise.

To automate and precisely manage humidity control from curing through to packaging, more cannabis processors employ humidity control products, like Boveda. Boveda 2-way humidity control prevents evaporation of terpenes and moisture to preserve potency and experience. And Boveda maintains a precise relative humidity (RH) level that inhibits mold and microbe growth.

Plus, well-hydrated flower retains its value, which means greater profits for cannabis companies.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: HEY, DOJ: STOP UNDERMINING STATE CANNABIS LAWS

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1221

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

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HOME GROW 12: 3 REASONS TO FLUSH CANNABIS PRE-HARVEST

Home Grow chronicles Dianna’s personal journey as a medical cannabis patient who registered and was approved by the Canadian government to grow cannabis in her home. Dianna’s experience is one grower’s point of view. Her ideas are neither the best nor the only proven methods for growing medicinal grade cannabis.


Indoor cultivator/Boveda blogger Dianna Donnelly believes in flushing her cannabis plants before harvest. Learn why some growers are pro-flushers and others are not.

According Jorge Cervantes, famous outdoor cannabis grower, the harvest stage of cultivation begins weeks before the actual cut. Surprised? Turns out harvest isn’t so cut and dry.

According Jorge Cervantes, famous outdoor cannabis grower, the harvest stage of cultivation begins weeks before the actual cut. Surprised? Turns out harvest isn’t so cut and dry.

BUT FIRST, A CAUTIONARY TALE ABOUT SKIPPING PRE-HARVEST PREP

Once upon a time, a guy I knew bragged about cutting a grove of flowering cannabis plants that he and some friends happened upon. (Obviously it was someone else’s grow.) 

So those cannabis bandits waited ’til midnight to cut down the plants. (So not cool, and totally against cannabis growers etiquette!) Next, the group dried a few colas on low in the oven, and smoked their selfish faces off. 

The group “greened out” immediately and suffered splitting headaches, too. (FYI: Being “greened out” describes experiencing too much THC at one time. Feels like being very drunk, followed by a wicked hangover.)

So if cannabis is used to ease nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy or other therapeutic treatments, why did these plants have the opposite effect on these botanical thieves?

The green thieves skipped the necessary pre-harvest steps that make flower a more pleasurable (and safer) smoke. Those plants were likely full of fertilizer residue. INSTANT KARMA!

DON’T BE THAT GUY, FLUSH BEFORE CUTTING DOWN CANNABIS

Flushing is when growers stop feeding plants anything but water prior to harvest. Flushing removes residual fertilizer from the roots, leaves and flower of the cannabis plant.

Two weeks before harvest, I moved my girls from a grow closet into a new grow tent. As expected, they responded well to this new tent, which is like a 360° mirror. Bud growth increased, along with the rapid pick up of trichomes. It was time to start pre-harvest prep.

Cannabis growing in a tent.

3 REASONS WHY I FLUSHED MY CANNABIS PLANTS BEFORE HARVEST

  1. Ingesting any part of the plant with fertilizer residue present can be dangerous, especially when smoked. 
    During the bloom stage, my plants’ cells or vessels (xylem) contain residual chemicals and nutrients from the bloom fertilizer.
  2. Plants are top-heavy. 
    In my mind, the soil also contained fertilizer residue. But ridding these chemicals isn’t the only reason to flush a cannabis plant’s soil.  Watering so much at once pushes the soil down, which stabilizes the roots and the plant. (Growers also use long bamboo stakes to stabilize plants during the blooming phase.) 
  3. Forces plants to “clean their plates.”
    Plants will use up all those remaining or saved nutrients in her cells and xylem.

HOW TO FLUSH CANNABIS PLANTS AND THEIR SOIL

Beware of ever feeding cannabis plants with time-release fertilizer pellets because it’s impossible to remove that fertilizer/food from the soil before you harvest your cannabis.

After my plants were in the tent for about a week, I stopped feeding them nutrients and Botanicare Pure Blend® Pro Bloom and put them on a water-only diet.

  1. From above, water each plant with 4 liters of water.
  2. With a turkey baster (LOL), remove the excess water that runs out of the drain holes and into the tray underneath to prevent the plant from reabsorbing any nutrient run-off. 
  3. Three days later, water 1 liter from below into the tray, so the roots can absorb the water.
  4. For the next 10 days, water 1 liter from below every other day.

SOME CULTIVATORS SKIP FLUSHING, HERES WHY I DIDNT SKIP THIS CRUCIAL PRE-HARVEST STEP

I’m home growing my own medicinal cannabis primarily for vaping and smoking. I’ll also reserve a portion to eat and convert into edible oil, which will be decarboxylated in the oven.

Even if you convert the flower into an edible, the nutrient residue remains (and is possibly toxic). When heated, fertilizer and pesticide residues can change into very detrimental compounds like hydrogen cyanide—very bad news. 

Because I use cannabis as medicine, I want to avoid ingesting fertilizer/pesticide residues into my lungs or digestive system. Only the purest product for me, especially now that I control cultivation as a home grower.

Organic fertilizers and pesticides are always best for my garden and a necessity for me since my Boston Terrier Molly shares the space with all of us.  This is not to say that “organic” is always safe. But for me, “organic” usually means something from my kitchen.

I hope flushing reduces the residue in my cannabis plants and their soil by the time I cut them down.

4 TELL-TALE SIGNS THAT FLOWER YOU’RE SMOKING WASN’T FLUSHED

If flower hasn’t been throughly flushed of residues before you smoke it, that cannabis can:

  • Have trouble staying lit
  • Make your lips and tongue tingle
  • Burn the throat
  • Produce dark or black ash (Conversely, the ash from clean dry carbon is light grey or even white. Which flower would you rather smoke?) 
Produce dark or black ash (Conversely, the ash from clean dry carbon is light grey or even white. Which flower would you rather smoke?)

2 REASONS SOME GROWERS SKIP FLUSHING BEFORE HARVESTING CANNABIS

Growers who don’t flush their cannabis argue:

  1. Plants metabolize all of the chemicals, so only a slight trace of chemical residue is left behind.
  2. Plants that are well-fed right up until harvest produce greater yields.

To me, clean cannabis is quality cannabis, so I will always flush.

Plus, I’m kinda picky.  I loathe the smell of sulphur, a common component in many fertilizers. I can detect residual sulphur even after bud is cured. Maybe that’s why I’m such a militant flusher!

How will I know when my flower is ready harvest? Stay tuned!


Dianna Donnelly

Dianna Donnelly is a cannabis educator, blogger, and freelance writer living in Kingston, Ontario. She counsels new patients on the safe and effective use of medicinal cannabis and believes that with enough time, cannabis, and coconut oil she can heal the world.

Dianna Donnelly’s posts are being provided for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by Boveda or any of the products, services or opinions of Dianna Donnelly. Boveda bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of this post or links to the posts. Contact Dianna Donnelly for answers to questions regarding her content.

HOME GROW: PART 1: LEGAL TO DO IT

HOME GROW: PART 11: 3 BIG PROBLEMS DURING BLOOM & HOW TO FIX THEM

SEE HOW BOVEDA WORKS FOR CANNABIS

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HEY, DOJ: STOP UNDERMINING STATE CANNABIS LAWS

Constituents want cannabis reform. And now members of the U.S. House of Representatives have called for broad, permanent changes to federal cannabis policies. The House voted to stop the Department of Justice (DOJ) from spending money to prevent states and territories from “implementing their own laws that authorize the use, distribution, possession, or cultivation of marijuana.”

LEAN IN, LISTEN IN & LEARN:

  1. What 13 states are expected to sell at least 1 billion in cannabis in 2019?
  2. Why we should all be #weedwise and shop for flower only in licensed cannabis shops.
  3. Why adult-use markets must offer cannabis consumers both click-and-order online sales and brick-and-mortar retail locations.

“There needs to be convenience, there needs to be quality, there needs to be accessibility, so those adults who vote ‘yes’ will actually be able to consume cannabis.”

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

In adult-use markets, shun grey or black market for safer cannabis

“When people want to consume for relaxation or recreation, they don’t usually plan ahead one-to-three weeks—or however long it takes an individual in a remote province to receive a mail-order cannabis purchase,” Lance noted.

Conveniently located, licensed dispensaries are key for consumers. Make it hard to buy flower and adults might continue to buy cannabis illegally. But buyer beware with black market flower and its unknown THC levels, possible pesticide exposure and dried out, broken trichomes.

“When you buy cannabis legally, it’s tested, it’s approved, it’s properly handled and packaged properly,” Lance said.

Proper humidity control prevents evaporation & mold growth for LPs

For your safety, cannabis companies adhere to state regulations, which are often guided by international standards. When it comes to moisture, careful growers manage the relative humidity (RH) level wherever flower is present—in bins, jars, or sealed packaging.

Too much moisture creates an environment where mold can grow. Sometimes processors intentionally over dry cannabis to prevent mold growth. But over drying cannabis flower creates its own problems. As moisture evaporates from the flower, the quality of the bud is compromised, including terpene levels, aroma, taste, color, potency and efficacy. Also, dry flower weighs less, so it sells for less.

More cannabis processors are preventing evaporation in flower by curing, storing, shipping and packaging flower with humidity control products, like Boveda. Boveda 2-way humidity control protects trichomes—those crystalline powerhouses of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. Boveda coats those trichomes with a monolayer of purified water, which acts as a protective shield to prevent evaporation of terpenes and moisture. Thus, preserving potency and experience.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: LOOK FOR LEGAL REC IN THE U.S. BY 2022

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1214

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

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LOOK FOR LEGAL REC IN THE U.S. BY 2022

LEAN IN, LISTEN UP AND LEARN:

  1. Why the U.S. should adopt Canada’s start low and go slow model to lift prohibition on cannabis products.
  2. Who’s pardoning consumers for minor possession of cannabis for personal use.
  3. Why Canadian cannabis consumers are calling out dry flower on social media and what LPs can do to prevent evaporation in dried buds.

“We need to unring this bell of prohibition.

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

START CANNABIS CONVERSATIONS BASED ON FACT:

  • Senators and scientists agree cannabis legalization is gaining traction. There’s a generational replacement occurring—younger votes who favor legalization are replacing older voters who tend to be anti-cannabis. Yes, the Times They Are A Changing. (02:38)
  • Physicians and nurses must be proactive about MMJ education, including the human endocannabinoid system, dosing approaches, side effects and medication interactions. (04:31)
  • Just like with any other medication, yes you can intake too much cannabis and have a bad reaction. That’s why it’s important to only buy flower from a licensed dispensary, so you know what you’re about to ingest. And talk to your budtender about dosing, THC levels and desired effects. Plus make sure the flower you buy is humidity-controlled and free from mold and microbes. (04:57)
  • Cannabis consumers can apply for pardons for simple cannabis possession in several cities and municipalities in legal adult-use states and Canada. Illinois state legislature is the first state to legalize marijuana and pardon low-level offenses. 06:00
  • As the cannabis industry matures, there are more ways to consume cannabis, including in concentrates, oils, patches and tinctures. Trust processors who start with quality, well-hydrated flower. With cannabis, as with any other ingredient, garbage in is garbage out. 10:09

A CALLER ON THE LINE ASKED IF BOVEDA CONTROLS HUMIDITY IN INSTRUMENTS, TOO

Yes! Musicians use Boveda 2-way humidity control to protect wood instruments from fatigue and deterioration caused by lack of moisture.

From acoustic and electric guitars and cellos to violins, bassoons and ukuleles, Boveda prevents RH fluctuations, which can cause cracking and warping and affect sound quality. Woodwind players store their reeds with Boveda, too. Read how moisture is affecting your music.

Switch to the precise, mess-free way to control humidity in your instrument case. First step is the Boveda Starter Kit for acoustic guitars or other wood instruments.

MUSICIAN, TIRED OF ADDING WATER TO YOUR HOSE, SNAKE OR SPONGE?

Switch to the precise, mess-free way to control humidity in your instrument case. First step is the Boveda Starter Kit for an acoustic guitar or other wood instrument.

Switch to the precise, mess-free way to control humidity in your instrument case. First step is the Boveda Starter Kit for acoustic guitars or other wood instruments.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: TOP PLACES TO START A CANNABIS-FRIENDLY BUSINESS

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1203

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

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FLOWER & FITNESS VS OPIOIDS & DEPENDENCY: A MARINE’S FIGHT


AND HOW VETERANS & FIRST RESPONDERS CAN GET FREE CBD FROM HEROGROWN


Throwing a baseball around with your kid isn’t just about loosening up his arm. Often it’s your chance to catch up, strengthen your relationship and show that kid you still got it.

So when your son tosses you your baseball glove and says, ‘Let’s play catch,’ you do it. But when Cord Peck bent over to tie his shoes, his body froze in place. His body wasn’t working the same way it did when he was a United States Marine in active duty.

By 2008, Cord had gained 60 pounds, was plagued by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dependent on medications to treat the condition.

“The reality of it all is, I became an overweight, lethargic, sloth-like man that didn’t really care about anything,” Cord said.

Cord Peck before and after. As an award-winning bodybuilder, Cord ranked fourth in the nation in men’s physique division. He is a Boveda-sponsored athlete who uses the 2-way humidity control to preserve the potency of his medicinal cannabis.

“I just woke up and slept and ate and didn’t care.”

Cord served in Operation Desert Storm. And like many veterans, he returned home suffering from PTSD. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) typically responds to cases of PTSD, chronic pain or other ailments common among American warriors by prescribing powerful antidepressants or opioid painkillers, which can have intense side effects and are known to be habit-forming. 

Often he took medications to off-set the side effects of other prescription meds. This left him in a drugged-out haze, which added to his severe depression.

“I must’ve had an epiphany, I looked at my son and I started crying.” Cord admitted. “Of course, he was nervous and asked, ‘What’s wrong, Dad?’ I just told him I couldn’t play ball, I needed to get in shape and figure it out. I spent the next year after that, tapering on my own off of the medication that the VA had given me and exercising.”

“As veterans, we don’t want to be lethargic and cloudy, we want a purpose. We want a mission.”

BACK TO LIFE WITH EXERCISE & CANNABIS

So Cord hit the gym—and hit it hard. He lost nearly 60 pounds doing P90X routines. He entered weightlifting and bodybuilding competitions. But the strain of powerlifting was too hard on his joints. So he checked out a new division within bodybuilding called men’s physique

Cord Peck before and after. As an award-winning bodybuilder, Cord ranked fourth in the nation in men’s physique division. He is a Boveda-sponsored athlete who uses the 2-way humidity control to preserve the potency of his medicinal cannabis.

CORD PECK BEFORE AND AFTER. As an award-winning bodybuilder, Cord ranked fourth in the nation in men’s physique division. He uses Boveda to preserve the potency of his medicinal cannabis.

In men’s physique competitions, judges gauge fitness and symmetry combined with muscularity and overall condition, according to the National Physique Committee.

“It’s about constantly changing yourself to be better, being yourself,” Cord said. “It’s not about being anybody else, it’s not about competing against anybody else, it’s about being better than you were the day before, the month before, the year before. It’s constantly trying to better yourself so you can continue to have a good healthy life.”

HOW CBD FITS INTO A BODYBUILDER’S TRAINING REGIMEN

Along with exercise, Cord builds cannabis into his healthful lifestyle to alleviate symptoms of PTSD, including:

  • Smokable flower
  • CBD protein powder for shakes
  • Infused topicals

Many people, especially vets and professional athletes, turn to cannabis to relieve pain. VA doctors are unable to prescribe medical cannabis to vets because cannabis is still considered a Schedule I narcotic on the federal level. And paying out-of-pocket for medical cannabis and CBD products can be cost prohibitive.

Cord, however, is open about his cannabis use, and believes more athletes need to “come out of the cannabis closet.”

“Most bodybuilders that are in the community view cannabis very positively, but they’re kind of hidden about it,” Cord said. “I have no problem sitting in front of people taking CBD drops or rubbing the salve on. I find that more and more people are coming up to me in the gym to ask me about CBD, which is just great.”

Athletes and active adults have a lot to gain by using cannabis. Studies show its anti-inflammatory properties can help aid muscle recovery. But it’s the people who suffer from PTSD who will benefit the most, Cord said.

“I used to be one hell of a nasty person; I was very angry, judgmental, and hard to be around.”

“Ever since I stopped the medication and I went with CBD, I love smiling and talking to people. This medicine is a life-changer.”

ARE YOU A VET OR FIRST RESPONDER WHO NEEDS CBD FOR TRAUMA AND PAIN RELIEF?

Join HeroGrown now—membership is FREE! HeroGrown provides direct assistance to thousands of members through its CBD AirDrop program. Veterans and first responders can receive free CBD patches, CBD vape oil and CBD capsules/oil.

HeroGrown also works to stop employers, health insurers and the government from discriminating against cannabis users. And fights for their right to choose cannabis as a safe alternative to opioids.

Hero Grown membership is free and open to all military veterans, current and former first responders. In addition, immediate family members of the above categories are invited to join.

Support HeroGrown’s mission to get CBD to those who serve our nation

HeroGrown is a 501(c)(19) nonprofit organization. Your donation is tax deductible to this tax-exempt war veterans’ organization. Boveda is a sponsor of HeroGrown.


Rachelle Gordon

By Rachelle Gordon
www.RachelleGordon.net

Rachelle Gordon is a Minneapolis-based freelance writer and educator in the cannabis space. She has dedicated herself to informing others about the powers of plant medicine after witnessing her father’s struggle with epilepsy (and subsequent stroke) in her childhood.

Rachelle’s posts are being provided for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by Boveda of any of the products, services or opinions of Rachelle. Boveda bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of this post  or links to the posts. Contact Rachelle Gordon for answers to questions regarding her content.

HOW DOES FLOWER HELP WITH PTSD?

PTSD FOLLOWS HIM HOME

VETERANS & FIRST RESPONDERS TURN TO CANNABIS FOR HEALING

CANNABIS WORK BUT NO RELIEF

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

Top places to start a cannabis-friendly business

Passionate about cannabis? Want to use your skills to support the green cause? Set up shop somewhere that already champions the cannabis industry.

LEAN IN, LISTEN UP AND LEARN:

  1. What Canadian province touts the most dispensaries.
  2. What states to avoid if you want a job in the cannabis sector.
  3. Where to find trustworthy cannabis travel news.

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

Be the cannabis educator! Share these flower facts:

  • Looking for a cannabis vacation destination? Think heavily populated Canadian provinces, like Ontario and British Columbia have the most dispensaries? More than a third of all Canadian dispensaries are located in Alberta, which contains only 12% of the country’s population. (Shorter lines at the dispensaries?) (03:13)
  • Approximately 90% of people aged 61 years and older cite pain relief as the major motivator for using cannabis. (03:47)
  • Baby Boomers, those born between 1946 and 1964, are the fastest-growing demographic for cannabis consumption. And Boomers’ elders (AKA the Silent Generation) are also finding relief from this healing herb. (03:57)
  • Adults can legally consume cannabis in both Canada and California. Both areas boast similar populations, 36.5 million and 39 million respectively. Plus, cannabis consumption is just about equal across those locales, too. (04:58)
  • In Canada, edibles, extracts and topicals are now subject to an excise tax based on their THC percentage. So a product with a higher percentage of this psychoactive cannabinoid is taxed more heavily, and therefore, will be more expensive. (Buying THC-high product is like splurging on high proof, top shelf alcohol.) (05:23)
  • Starting a business that supports the cannabis industry, such as security, commercial real estate, irrigation, packaging design, etc.? Target a site with an effective cannabis education program, which will help you gauge that community’s acceptance of cannabis. (Think California.) (06:39)
  • Recently, a 22 year old and a 71 year old were arrested in a Texas airport for traveling with hemp-based CBD oil. According to U.S. TSA, you can travel with CBD products that contain no more than 0.3 percent THC. (13:24)

“It sure feel like it’s the early 1980s, when you hear horror stories about people getting arrested for possession of what the federal government has just deemed legal–that’s insane.”

Traveling with California flower versus Texas oil (CBD-oil, that is)

Recently, Lance and the Boveda team attended a cannabis show in his hometown of San Francisco. “In California, it’s legal to gift up to an ounce of flower to any legal adult over 21 years old,” Lance said. “So cannabis companies were giving out samples at the expo.”

Boveda packs, cannabis, 2-way humidity control, keep the aroma inside your bud.

Boveda tested those samples to show attendees how much moisture had evaporated from the flower. And explain how quality and potency evaporates right along with moisture.

“When I got home, I opened my bag and thought, ‘WOW that kind of smells strong.’ I completely forgot about a sample bag of flower that was still in my carry-on. No wonder that TSA guy was smiling at me.”

Traveling with cannabis and CBD products? Stay up-to-date on travel news at Leafly, including, How to Travel With Cannabis in the Car.

Keep the aroma inside your bud—along with its potency

Boveda packs, cannabis, 2-way humidity control, keep the aroma inside your bud.

The tell-tale aroma of cannabis isn’t just a giveaway to TSA, it’s also a signal that your flower is losing potency. As cannabis dries out, it loses terpenes—the volatile aromatic chemical components found in plant trichomes that also produce cannabinoids.

Cultivates, processors and retailers can protect the therapeutic efficacy of their flower for consumers by storing buds with 2-way humidity control. Keeping cured cannabis between 58% and 62% RH with Boveda 2-way humidity control protects trichomes from being permanently destroyed. Thus preventing the evaporation of your flower’s quality.

According to an analysis by Boveda researchers, most flower available to consumers is too dry.



BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: SOCIAL JUSTICE & CANNABIS LAWS

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1196

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

SOCIAL JUSTICE & CANNABIS LAWS

Social justice advocates are fighting for decriminalization of cannabis. Are cannabis laws too punitive and do they target people of color? Twenty four states and many municipalities have either partially or fully decriminalized flower. As with most cannabis laws, they vary from state to state. Possessing a small stash for personal consumption might mean no arrest, no prison time nor criminal record depending on where you are.

LEAN IN, LISTEN UP AND LEARN:

  1. What major human rights organizations champion cannabis legalization.
  2. How coast-to-coast cannabis legalization tamps down on the black market and protects cannasumers from the dangers of illicit product.
  3. What states still ban cannabis AND hemp.

…theyre focusing on putting people away, locking people up in prison, making sure that they throw away the key for anyone who is a serious offender instead of trying to come up with proactive programs… . 

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

CANNABIS CONVERSATION STARTERS:

CULTIVATORS LOOK FOR A PRECISE, EASY WAY TO KEEP CANNABIS SAFE

Controlling moisture in dried flower can be a challenge for cannabis companies. Lose too much moisture to evaporation and the chemical composition of cannabis flower degrades as it dries out. But over-humidifying buds creates a breeding ground for mold and microbes

THE SOLUTION TO MOLD & EVAPORATION PROBLEMS IS TWO-WAY HUMIDITY CONTROL

Bovedas two-way humidity control adds or removes pure water vapor as needed from the headspace of a cannabis container to maintain a constant, predetermined level of relative humidity (RH).

Boveda and cannabis at Nectar.

Just slip in Boveda with a cure, inventoried product and packaged flower. Both Boveda 62% RH and Boveda 58% RH keep dried flower in the RH sweet spot. This RH level inhibits mold growth, protects potency and maximizes the economic value of flower.

Top cannabis brands use patented Boveda two-way humidity control, including Aurora, Humboldt Legends and MedMen. And now Boveda is building relationships within the cannabis space in South America, Australia, Europe, Africa and Asia, too. “These partners see the value of two-way humidity control. And how much good Boveda brings to the cannabis industry,” Lance Lambert said.

Indeed, Boveda is partnering with cannabis professionals on all continents, except Antarctica. But if anyone at McMurdo Station is looking to keep cannabis from drying out, shoot Boveda an email.

The ultimate in cultivator terror? HOW NEVER TO BE NAMED IN A MOLD RECALL

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: COST & DANGER OF CASH-BASED CANNABIS

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1191

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

COST & DANGER OF CASH-BASED CANNABIS

If you see a CASH ONLY sign at checkout—like a greasy burger joint—do you immediately think, this dive must be a front for a money laundering operation? But U.S. dispensaries only take cash—no credit cards. And many cannabis businesses have difficulty accessing traditional banking services. Does the cash-based industry perpetuate the back-alley stigma of cannabis?

LEAN IN, LISTEN UP AND LEARN:

  1. How cash-only policies adversely affect cannabis companies
  2. Why publicly traded banks don’t want to do business with cannabis
  3. Why a credit union could make financial sense for a cannabis biz

“This plant wasn’t meant to be illegal in the first place.”

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

DROP THESE CANNABIS FACTS WHEN YOU LEAVE A PENNY AT THE REGISTER:

  • The STATES Act (AKA Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States) “ensures that each state has the right to determine for itself the best approach to marijuana within its borders.” Plus allows compliant businesses to operate in states that have legalized cannabis and creates an exception for cannabis in the Controlled Substances Act. (1:25)
  • SAFE Banking Act of 2019 (short for Secure And Fair Enforcement in Banking) would allow financial institutions to do business with legitimate cannabis-related businesses and service providers. (4:07)
  • Publicly traded banks (think Bank of America, Citigroup and Wells Fargo) are hesitant to provide financial services to the cannabis industry. Because cannabis is still illegal on the federal level, perhaps banks don’t want to anger the government that bailed them out in the late 00s. (6:46)
  • Bipartisan support is growing for SAFE and STATES Acts. (8:15)
  • Roughly 2/3 of U.S. citizens think cannabis should be legal on some level. (8:44)
  • Hemp and cannabis prohibition has only been around since the early 19th century.(17:56)

“It isn’t even a pro-cannabis conversation, it’s a pro-safety conversation.”

Imagine paying $75,000 a month in taxes IN CASH. Or vaulting large deposits on premises when your business is flush with dough.

Security is costly for a cash-based industry, like cannabis. Cameras, alarms, key-in systems, guards and armored cars are the cost of doing business when traditional banks won’t do business with you.

BOVEDA IN DC FIGHTING FOR CANNABIS BIZ RIGHTS

Longtime supporter of legal cannabis, Oregon Representative Earl Blumenauer is pictured with Boveda’s head of herbal, Lance Lambert. Lance joined several of Boveda’s trade association partners on the hill in Washington, DC. to garner support for the STATES Act, the Safe Banking Act and the 2018 Farm Bill.

Lance was in DC as a member of the Board of Directors for ATACH (the American Trade Association for Cannabis and Hemp). The grassroots organization promotes the expansion, protection and preservation of businesses engaged in the legal trade of industrial, medical and recreational cannabis and hemp-based products.

(And you thought Boveda was all about preventing cannabis companies from losing profits to moisture evaporation.) Boveda backs fair business practices and international standards to ensure the legal cannabis industry can thrive.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS: WE ARE A PART OF AN EVOLUTION

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1188

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

Cannabis: We Are a Part of an Evolution

The taboo of cannabis is evaporating. Local and national governments are recognizing the effectiveness of medicinal cannabis. Most people want cannabis decriminalized, if not made legal outright. Is decriminalization just a pacifier or a precursor to fully legalizing flower?


LEAN IN, LISTEN UP AND LEARN:

  1. PURPLE POLITICS: Politically conservative states are legalizing medicinal cannabis.
  2. WEEDING OUT: Why drug testing for cannabis doesn’t belong in legal states.
  3. CANNABIS CURVEBALLS: Countries’ cannabis laws that take the world by surprise.

“I always get nostalgic thinking about how difficult it was to even have a conversation about cannabis, you didn’t even bring that up out loud…”

-Todd Shapiro on the Cannabis Catch-Up

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

“Let’s face it, energy goes where the money flows.”

Continue the conversation in your community with these cannabis talking points:

  • Previous anti-cannabis state governments are now approving CBD-only products, setting an example for rest of the United States. (2:40)
  • Consumption in right wing states is on the rise. (3:22)
  • Cannabis finds a place in Nevada, and it’s not in the hiring process. (5:24)
  • Cincinnati approves that residents of legal age can possess up to to 100 grams of flower. What size Boveda to use for that much bud to prevent terpenes and moisture from evaporating? (8:00)
  • According to a 2018 Seedo study, New York City has the highest consumption rate of cannabis in the U.S. market, at 77.44 metric tons per year. Seedo manufactures an automated plant cultivation device. (9:05)
  • Nigeria surpassed Iceland as the country with highest number of cannabis consumers. (10:00)
  • There’s a promising and profitable future for cannabis cultivation in African countries. Think landrace and heirloom flower varietals, like Durban Poison. (12:24)

Durban Poison hailed from the South African port city of Durban. A thick coating of sticky trichomes covers the plant. Curing and storing strains like Durban Poison with 2-way humidity control is essential to protect trichomes. Boveda coats a cannabis flower’s trichomes with a monolayer of purified water—one to two molecules thick—that act as a protective shield. Boveda prevents evaporation of terpenes and moisture in cannabis to protect potency and experience.

  • Scotland gives the green light for cannabis farming. (14:38)
  • Richard Nixon’s drug policies, D.A.R.E and Nancy Reagan’s “Just Say No” program set the cannabis conversation back. Today, research and education are righting minds to evolve communication about cannabis.  (17:36)

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: REMOVE CANNABIS FROM SCHEDULE I, THEN REGULATE IT

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1210

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

Remove Cannabis from Schedule I, then Regulate it

Why is the U.S. federal government so cautious about cannabis? Cannabis is still a Schedule I controlled substance. Some want cannabis moved to Schedule II. Others want to remove flower’s controlled substance label and adopt cannabis safety standards.

Cannabis is so interesting. At what point will the governments everywhere across the world wake up?

-Todd Shapiro on the Cannabis Catch-Up

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

TURN UP WITH CANNABIS CONVERSATION STARTERS AT YOUR NEXT GET-TOGETHER:

  • There’s been a shift from education and advocacy to business and investing now that Canada is legal and more big players are getting into the cannabis market. (3:02
  • More people are more interested in investing in touch versus no-touch cannabis companies. For example, a medical cannabis producer and distributor like Aurora Cannabis is a touch cannabis company. Boveda is a no-touch company because it doesn’t grow, process or handle cannabis. Boveda complements the cannabis industry by preventing evaporation and moisture weight loss during curing, storing and retailing. (3:40)
  • Researchers like Dr. Sue Sisley are leading the first federal study on the effects of cannabis on veterans with post-traumatic stress. (6:36)
  • Cannabis-Med.org/studies provides overviews of clinical studies with cannabis or single cannabinoids for different diseases. You can search cannabis studies on specific medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries and sleep disorders. (7:02)

Megan Baker (left) of Papa & Barkley Co., a Cannabis company based in Eureka, California, showed Shirley Avedon of Laguna Woods different products intended to help with pain relief. From www.npr.org.

“All of us stereotype and generalize demographics in general,  we just do it day-to-day. When you meet older individuals, we sometimes think they’re still in the proverbial ‘green closet.’ We think they aren’t educated, but they are.”  (9:57)

  • What’s the difference between Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances? According to the U.S. DEA, Schedule I drugs have a higher potential for abuse and dependency than Schedule II drugs. So why is cannabis a Schedule I drug while deadly synthetic opioids, like fentanyl are Schedule II drugs? (10:56)
  • The U.S. is so far behind Canada and Mexico when it comes to recognizing cannabis’s potential—both medically and financially. (12:22)
  • Way back in 2001, Canada launched Medical Marijuana Access Regulations to allow individuals with HIV/AIDS and other illnesses to have legal access to MMJ. (12:41)
  • California was the first U.S. state to legalize cannabis for medicinal use. Proposition 215, also known as the “Compassionate Use Act,” passed in 1996. (12:57)
  • Even in legal rec markets, people still buy cannabis on the black market if they don’t have access to dispensaries. (15:39)
  • Buying black market cannabis is dangerous. Pesticides, mold or heavy metals can contaminate black market flower. If humidity isn’t controlled, evaporation of terpenes and moisture compromises experience and potency. (16:55)


BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: DO LPS TAKE ON TOO MUCH POST-HARVEST?

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1171

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

DO LPS TAKE ON TOO MUCH POST-HARVEST?

Post-harvest can make or break a consumer’s experience with flower. Does the care between the grow and consumption get the credit, or attention, it deserves? Maintaining quality product throughout the supply chain is a challenge. Some licensed producers are re-evaluating whether they should do it all. Or farm out or automate some post-harvest operations.

Lean In, Listen Up and Learn:

  1. How automating humidity control can protect the quality of cannabis post-harvest.
  2. Which operations can vertically integrated producers streamline as they scale up.
  3. How growing cannabis differs from raising other commodities, like vegetables and tobacco.

“It’s not just throw seed in the ground and go with it, you know?”

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

TURN UP WITH CANNABIS CONVERSATION STARTERS AT YOUR NEXT GET-TOGETHER:

  • Large producers and home growers strive to stay within an ideal relative humidity for harvested cannabis. If the RH rises above 65%, cannabis is at risk for mold contamination. (1:30)
  • Many people compare cultivating cannabis to growing tobacco; however, the two plants are quite different. (2:05)
  • Terpenes (the essential oils that provide aroma and taste) start to evaporate when the relative humidity drops below 55%. When terpenes and moisture evaporates post-harvest, a cultivator can lose money. (2:30)
  • Mold issues are more common post-harvest than in the grow. That’s why cultivators, processors and retailers strive to stay within an ideal relative humidity range throughout harvesting, drying and curing crops. (3:15)
  • The cannabis community learns about warning signs, health risks, and safety precautions concerning mold contaminations from Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks. (4:40)
  • Cannabis grown and processed in dry—or humid—regions has a natural battle with humidity. (5:45)
  • Devastating fires can destroy everything—from HVAC systems to pots for planting. A grow operation can lose $100k+ from a disaster, like a fire. (6:45)
  • Pesticides, herbicides, companion crops and lady bugs are used to eradicate aphids in many crops; however, this is not true with cannabis. (8:55)
  • By adding departments and automating systems, growers can enhance some post-harvest operations. Processes cannabis producers spin off include trimming, humidity control and branding. (10:10)
  • For the best outcome, both large producers and home growers should put equal attention on drying, curing, storing, as well as growing. (11:00)
Cannabis trimming

MedMen, a leading national cannabis firm based in Los Angeles, refines and standardizes operations to retain the consistency of the therapeutic and psychoactive benefits of its cannabis. Curing and storing buds within an ideal RH range, preserves the terpene content of the flower. To prevent terpene evaporation and moisture loss, MedMen integrated Boveda 2-way humidity control into operations.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS OKAY? EVEN FEDERAL AGENCIES DISAGREE

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1179

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

CANNABIS OKAY? EVEN FEDERAL AGENCIES DISAGREE

Confused by state-specific cannabis laws? Even herbal opinions differ from one U.S. federal agency to another. Educate yourself about the government complexities of cannabis. And the hiccups that can come with coast-to-coast legalization. (Mail order actually slowed the Canadian roll-out of legal adult-use of cannabis.)

Listen and learn:

  • Which government agency is considered friendly to the hemp movement?
  • Does a job in the cannabis industry affect application for U.S. citizenship?
  • Which country is second to the United States in cannabis consumption?

“We saw a pivotal shift over the last couple of years.”

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

“The FDA we know are friendlies [to the cannabis industry] but when dealing with immigration, it’s a different conversation.”

  • The FDA is holding public cannabis hearings on the scientific and medicinal value of CBD. (16:42)
  • One argument against cannabis legalization that has proved untrue is an increase in automobile accidents. State legalization has neither increased nor decreased traffic fatalities, according to a study by a Kansas State University graduate student Andrew Young. (11:55)

WHAT THE U.S. CAN LEARN FROM OTHER COUNTRIES ABOUT EMBRACING CANNABIS

  • Legal cannabis in Guam recently made headway. (1:00)
  • Israeli scientists are leaders in worldwide cannabis research. (17:52)
  • In Germany, use of medicinal cannabis is growing and is on par with U.S. cannabis consumption. (8:06)
  • The UK’s GW Pharmaceuticals is the largest exporter of CBD. Its Epidiolex medication is the first FDA-approved medication derived from cannabis biomass. (18:31)
TIME magazine named GW Pharmaceuticals One of 50 Genius Companies for its work in advancing cannabinoid science.

TIME magazine named GW Pharmaceuticals One of 50 Genius Companies for its work in advancing cannabinoid science.

“The Green Rush is bleeding over to other categories—it’s hot right now!”

  • Kim Kardashian threw a CBD-themed baby shower. (CBD is beyond mainstream even though there still hasn’t been much testing on cannabis or CBD in the U.S. because the plant is still illegal at the federal level.) (4:20)
  • Pantone’s Color of the Year in 2017 was GREENERY—coincidence? (In this episode, GREENERY was cited as the 2018 Pantone Color of the Year. That distinction went to ULTRA VIOLET. Cannasseurs, however, can still put their designs on UltraViolet OG for a dream-like euphoria and some much needed ZZZs.) (5:13)
Pantone's color of 2017 was Greenery.

“Greens help our heartbeat to slow down, help us to breathe and pull ourselves away from a world tied to flatscreens and immerse ourselves in the physical beauty of the natural world,” Laurie Pressman, vice president at the Pantone Color Institute, said in an article in The Washington Post.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: DOES RELIGION INFLUENCE CANNABIS LEGALIZATION?

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

LISTEN TO THE ENTIRE TODD SHAPIRO SHOW: EP 1166

HOW BOVEDA WORKS

SHOP BOVEDA

EVAPORATION OF TERPENES & MOISTURE STRIPS VALUE FROM A HARVEST

Post-harvest is tricky. All of the hard work cultivators put into their grow-op can be compromised once the flower is sold and leaves their hands. What was once a top-shelf, premium bud can quickly and easily become sub-par at any point during its journey from the soil to the customer. So how can cultivators control their harvest once it’s in the bins, out for distribution, or on the shelf? The answer is to manage evaporation throughout the supply chain.

EVAPORATION: FLOWER’S QUALITY AND VALUE ARE AT RISK

How Evaporation Affects Quality
When cannabis begins to dry out, the terpenes of the flower start to evaporate. This results in a low quality product and poor customer experience with a brand.

How Evaporation Means Lost Profits
Additionally, when the flower’s moisture weight begins to evaporate, the economic value of the whole harvest drops and affects the producers bottom line.

OVER-DRYING: THE POST-HARVEST OVERSIGHT THAT CAN COMPROMISE CRAFT

“People focus on growing the plant but they forget about the post-harvest which is integral to the process,” Matt Christopherson, VP of Business Development & Partner at Twister Trimmers, said.

Matt Christopherson from Twister Trimmers speaking about post-harvest.

“It doesn’t make sense walking away from something you took eight weeks to grow passionately.”

Matt Christopherson, Twister Trimmers

Everyone knows mature buds must be dried and cured before they can be smoked or vaped. But there’s a fine line between achieving an optimal cure and over-drying a harvest. When too much water dissipates from flower, its quality and potency suffer. This ultimately puts the cultivator at risk resulting in a poor quality product and a damaged brand reputation in the market. Not to mention—the drier the flower, the lighter it weighs. So you do the math.

Cultivators can’t afford to slip in today’s highly competitive cannabis field—trip up and savvy consumers move on. Producers must combat moisture evaporation like the plague that it is. The results speak for themselves: the brand is saved, the investors are happy, the customers are happy.

EVAPORATION IS STANDING BETWEEN A PERFECT HARVEST & THE END USER

In the nascent cannabis industry, those in newly legal rec markets would buy just about anything—at first. As markets matured, so did consumers’ palates. Customers now recognize when flower is not up to par, they buy more of what they like and skip brands that disappoint them.

Since 2012, adults in Washington state have been able to legally buy and consume cannabis. And some Washingtonians are none too happy about the product they’ve purchased. Origins Cannabis, a premier dispensary in Seattle and Redmond, wanted to find out why.

Origins ran a campaign asking people to bring in empty containers from flunky flower—whether they bought it at Origins or not. The consumers filled out a quick iPad® survey to review the product.

“It would help us understand what they didn’t like,” said Jon Sherman, who runs Origins along with business partner Andrew Cornwall.

Jon Sherman from Origins Cannabis speaking about his company.

“We were blown by what the results were. It was because their product was too dry.”

– Jon Sherman, Origins Cannabis

Drew Emmer of Boveda isn’t surprised. Boveda holds the patent for portable two-way humidity control used in moisture-sensitive products, including cannabis. A third party study found that cannabis stored with Boveda retains 15% more terpenes than flower stored without Boveda, Emmer explained. Losing too much moisture degrades flower—its terpene retention, efficacy, potency and weight.

Drew Emmer from Boveda speaking about cannabis.

“What was once considered a ‘seed to sale’ supply chain is now actually ‘seed to satisfaction’.

– Drew Emmer, Boveda

Selling harvested cannabis is no longer the end of the road for cultivators. Prior to the legal cannabis industry, utmost high demand for cannabis didn’t leave much necessity for addressing customer satisfaction or other post purchase factors. Now that the industry is becoming legal, regulated and competitive; cultivators now need to take into account customer satisfaction and post purchase factors.

THE IDEAL: 55-65% RH PREVENTS TERPENE & MOISTURE LOSS

Optimally, flower should be kept at a water activity (aW) level between 0.55 and 0.65, according to a recommendation by ASTM International standards. Cultivators and retailers can achieve this by storing flower in a container at a relative humidity level (RH) between 55% and 65%.

THE REALITY: 90% OF FLOWER IN THE MARKET IS SOLD TOO DRY

Boveda regularly sends secret shoppers into dispensaries to buy off-the-shelf flower. Boveda then tests the samples to discover their water activity (aW) level.

A field study of five dispensaries throughout the western U.S. revealed that most flower available to consumers is too dry.

Field test report stating that 90% of flower is too dry.

THE FINANCIAL GAIN: EVAPORATION COSTS PROFITS

There’s an opportunity for cultivators to set themselves apart in an industry that is only getting more competitive. According to Boveda’s field study, retailers could actually gain up to $5,500 in additional revenue per 100 pounds if they added humidity-control measures to their products.

3 WAYS TO TAKE CONTROL OF EVAPORATION THROUGHOUT THE SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Control Evaporation At Curing

Preventing too much moisture from evaporating starts long before flower hits the shelf.Curing is a craft in and of itself. The challenge is to revive without over, or under humidifying dried product.

Curing slowly at an optimal humidity level:

  • Gives buds time to fully develop their chemical profiles
  • Leads to higher potency of therapeutic cannabinoids and terpenes
  • Refines the pure essence of beloved strains

2. Manage Evaporation In Inventory & Distribution

Cultivators are processing more flower to meet greater demand. As a result, more product is stored in inventory. And evaporation is the bane of binned cannabis. As moisture content is lost, so are the terpenes and cannabinoids that make the strain what it is. So carefully grown and cured cannabis may be compromised before it even leaves a facility.

3. Add Humidity Control Into Packaging

Some growers use vacuum-sealing technology to create an airtight environment, which can leave bud dense and difficult to smoke. Other vertically integrated producers add humidity control to every vial, jar or bag before sending flower to market.

Packing flower in a container with proper humidity control:

  • Continues to refine aroma and flavor
  • Retains terpenes and cannabinoids
  • Controls evaporation once product leaves the cultivator

WELL-HUMIDIFIED FLOWER GIVES COMPETITIVE EDGE

Cannabis is a thriving business. Successful cultivators focus on technique, innovation and final product. When cultivators take proper steps to control the humidity of their end product all the way through the supply chain, their companies will output consistently quality product. And quality product attracts consumers, fosters trust and builds brand loyalty.

What’s at stake is everything aforementioned.

EVAPORATION IS DEPRIVING CONSUMERS AND COSTING LPS MILLIONS

Boveda Is Perfecting Humidity, One Packet at a Time

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Does Religion Influence Cannabis Legalization?

The prohibition of alcohol in the 1920s had support from certain religious sects. These days, some faith-based groups favor cannabis prohibition. Hear how people’s religious beliefs can shape their opinion about legalizing cannabis.

Listen and learn:

  • Which religious groups have come out in support of medical cannabis?
  • Are traditionally conservative countries starting to reconsider previous bans on cannabis?
  • How to weed through CBD products.

“We talk about religion and politics and money—the three things you never discuss on a first date.”

The Cannabis Catch-Up is sponsored by Boveda, the leader in two-way humidity control for buds. Subscribe to the Boveda Cannabis YouTube Channel. Or listen to Lance Lambert’s insights live every Monday at 4:20 pm EST on The Todd Shapiro Show (SiriusXM Channel 167).

“We’re always learning something new and keeping everyone up to date about the fast growing cannabis industry.”

Cannabis in Church?

Some religious groups are taking a stance on medical cannabis now that it’s more widely accepted. In Utah, the LDS Church (also referred to as the Mormons) was initially against cannabis legalization. Now the LDS Church supports medicinal cannabis. (7:52)

In South America, Chile and Colombia are leading the way toward legal cannabis. Traditionally, South American are Roman Catholic. (10:18)

According to a post in The Catholic Herald in response to Canada lifting cannabis prohibition, “With the exception of cannabis use for medicinal purposes, consuming marijuana violates the virtue of temperance and should be avoided, said Mgr Frank Leo, general secretary of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops.”

“We have these few countries around every continent that are kind of coming around and I think they’re going to be the ones that are the alphas and are going to be most successful because they’re going to be many steps ahead.”

Cannabis in Africa?

Zimbabwe recently issued its first license to grow medical cannabis. South Africa is on track to become one of the African continent’s biggest cannabis markets. (9:32)

Cannabis in Asia?

South Korea launched a medicinal program. And Conservative Thailand legalized medical cannabis. Both are great examples of how attitudes about flower around the world are rapidly changing. (10:29)

“Cannabis is like any other industry. There’s so many different opportunities in the fastest growing (pun intended) industry in the world. Get on board NOW. If you missed dot-com, don’t miss this opportunity if you’re passionate about cannabis and really want to make a difference.”

Cannabis on your resume?

There are opportunities in the cannabis industry, whether you want to touch the plant or not. Cannabis job creation is a huge benefit of legalization that no one can argue against. (19:23)

Workers at Nectar cannabis trimming and placing cannabis.

Want to touch the cannabis plant?

  • Master extractor
  • Master growers
  • Quality control inspectors
  • Edibles chefs
  • Dispensary managers
  • Irrigation specialists

Want to get into the cannabis industry, but don’t have expertise with the plant?

  • IT management
  • Physicians
  • Marketing directors
  • Human resource managers
  • Product and logistics managers
  • Software developers
  • Lawyers
  • Accountants
  • Digital media managers
  • Paralegals
  • Writers
  • Global leaders in 2-way humidity control (Hey, that sounds like Boveda.)
Boveda employees.

…and about the CBD Craze

CBD (cannabidiol) is being added to everything from skin care products to energy drinks. (10:53) This non-psychoactive cannabinoid is becoming extremely popular as a treatment for a variety of illnesses and ailments. However, the FDA has asserted authority over CBD, stating it cannot be promoted as a medicine.

The Hemp Farming Act of 2018 in the U.S. Farm Bill legalized industrial hemp production in the United States. Hemp typically contains high amounts of CBD.

“The U.S. Farm Bill addresses hemp from an industrial standpoint, in textile form. Not so much on the food grain side to be used in drinks or edibles, etc. So the regulation of CBD is something that’s still being worked.”

Want to try this new, old treatment?

Keep in mind what you want CBD to relieve—pain, anxiety, insomnia, etc. Then determine which delivery system—vaping, ingesting oils or capsules or massaging balms—are right for you.

How to Shop for CBD?

Do your research and make sure you’re getting CBD from a reliable resource whether you shop online or locally. Should you really buy a CBD product from a gas station?

Ask to see a product’s COA (certificate of analysis) before you buy that CBD product. If an online CBD retailer or shop can’t—or won’t—share the COA, take your CBD business elsewhere.

BOVEDA CANNABIS YOUTUBE CHANNEL

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: MAJORITY OF U.S. WANTS LEGAL CANNABIS

CANNABIS CATCH-UP: CANNABIS NOT A COMMODITY YET

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